Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2020, vol. 29, nr 3, March, p. 331–337
Publication type: original article
Estimating brain volume loss after radiation therapy in children treated for posterior fossa tumors (Corpus callosum and whole brain volume changes following radiotherapy in children)
1 The Oak Centre for Children and Young People, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, London, UK
2 Developmental Imaging and Biophysics Section, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
3 Department of Radiology, Exequiel Gonzalez Cortes Children’s Hospital, Santiago, Chile
4 Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
5 Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
6 CRUK Imaging Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, London, UK
Background. More than half of pediatric tumors of central nervous system (CNS) primarily originate in the posterior fossa and are conventionally treated with radiation therapy (RT).
Objectives. The objective of this study was to establish whether corpus callosum volumes (CCV) and whole brain volumes (WBV) are correlated and to determine the impact of whole-brain lowvs high-dose RT on brain parenchymal volume loss as assessed using each technique.
Material and Methods. Of the 30 identified children (6–12 years) with newly diagnosed posterior fossa tumors treated with cranial RT, including focal and whole-brain RT, suitable imaging was obtained for 23. Radiotherapy regimens were the following: no whole-brain RT (Group 1, n = 7), low-dose whole-brain RT (<30 Gy, Group 2, n = 9) and high-dose whole-brain RT (>30 Gy, Group 3, n = 7) in addition to focal boost. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were analyzed at baseline and follow-up (median 14 months). The CCVs were manually segmented on midline sagittal slice (n = 23), while WBVs were segmented semi-automatically using Freesurfer (n = 15). This was done twice (6-month interval) for all baseline CCV measurements and 5 randomly selected WBV measurements to establish measurement reproducibility. Correlations between CCV and WBV were investigated and percentage of children demonstrating reduction in CCV or WBV noted.
Results. Correlation between baseline CCV and WBV was not significant (p = 0.37). Measurement reproducibility was from 6% to –9% for CCV and from 4.8% to –1.2% for WBV. Among the children studied, 30.4% (7/23) had >9% reduction in CCV at follow-up, while 33.3% (5/15) had >1.2% reduction in WBV. Five of 7 patients with CCV loss were not picked up by WBV measurements. Similarly, 3 of 5 patients with WBV loss were not picked up by CCV measurements.
Conclusion. The CCV and the WBV are unrelated and may indicate different brain parenchymal losses following RT. Up to a third of posterior fossa tumors treated with RT have measurable CCV or WBV loss; incidence was equivalent in lowvs high-dose whole-brain RT.
posterior fossa tumor, radiotherapy, brain volume
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