Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
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ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2019, vol. 28, nr 5, May, p. 625–635

doi: 10.17219/acem/90763

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Trigonocephaly: Long-term results after surgical correction of metopic suture synostosis

Piotr Wójcicki1,A,D,E,F, Bernard Prudel1,B,C,D

1 Department of Plastic Surgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Polanica-Zdrój, Poland


Background. Premature closure and ossification of the metopic suture results in a triangular head shape called trigonocephaly and is characterized by a wedge-shaped forehead and frontotemporal narrowing. Untreated craniosynostosis may lead to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and, thereby, impaired neurodevelopment. Over the last decades, its incidence has been increasing, currently making it the 2nd most common type of isolated craniosynostosis. Treatment consist of cranioplasty, which should be performed before the age of 1 year.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term surgical outcomes in children operated on for trigonocephaly.
Material and Methods. The authors reviewed 30 consecutive cases of metopic synostosis treated over a 14-year period in the Plastic Surgery Department in Polanica-Zdrój, Poland. The data was evaluated using the patients’ clinical records, and preoperative and postoperative photographs. The patients showed up on a follow-up visit at a median age of 9 years and were examined by an ophthalmologist and a neurologist. The surgical outcomes were evaluated according to the Whitaker classification. In 23 patients, remodeling and the advancement of fronto-orbital skull segments was performed at a median age of 18 months and in 7 milder cases, simple suturectomy or burring of the metopic ridge was sufficient.
Results. According to the Whitaker classification, results were considered good to excellent (category I and II). Only 1 patient was included into category III. None of the examined cases were included into category IV, which would require a major craniofacial procedure, duplicating or exceeding the original operation. Neurological abnormalities were found in 12 cases and vision defects in 15 cases.
Conclusion. Trigonocephaly is currently the 2nd most common type of isolated synostosis. Surgical treatment based on Tessier’s and Marchac’s modified methods provides good results in patients at the age of about 12 months and prevents the consequences of ICP increase. Primary neurological and behavioral disorders may occur, despite corrective surgery.

Key words

craniosynostosis, trigonocephaly, metopic synostosis

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