Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2019, vol. 28, nr 3, March, p. 407–413
Publication type: review article
Treatment of ovarian endometrial cysts in the context of recurrence and fertility
1 Department of Gynecology, Endocrinology and Gynecologic Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
An approach to ovarian endometrial cysts has changed considerably during recent years, especially in regard to treatment of recurrent endometriosis, fertility sparing and infertility management. Surgical treatment is the primary therapeutic option. The most efficient types of treatment are radical procedures involving adhesiolysis, removal of the cyst along with its capsule and any remaining endometriotic foci. However, small asymptomatic cysts should not be treated surgically, especially in patients older than 35 years. Surgical treatment can be considered in infertile women and those who failed to get pregnant despite 1–1.5 years of trials, as well as in cases in which in vitro fertilization is not an option. Also large cysts, with more than 4 cm in diameter, should be treated surgically due to the risk of their rupture or torsion. The most efficient preventive measure for recurrent ovarian endometriosis is unilateral oophorectomy with sparing the contralateral ovary. Such a procedure should be considered in women who are no longer interested in childbearing or present with another endometriotic cyst in the same ovary. The role of pharmacotherapy is fairly limited; it should be considered in patients in whom diffuse endometriosis is associated with pain. Therapeutic agents from the following groups can be used: estrogen-progestin preparation, gestagens, including progesteronereleasing intrauterine systems and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Women with infertility should get pregnant as soon as possible, and in patients who failed to get pregnant and/or are older than 35 years, in vitro fertilization should be the treatment of choice.
endometriosis, pharmacotherapy, surgical treatment, endometrioma
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