Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.736
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.135
Index Copernicus  – 168.52
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2019, vol. 28, nr 3, March, p. 361–367

doi: 10.17219/acem/87114

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Could infrared thermal imaging be a new diagnostic tool for acute appendicitis?

Sinan Hatipoglu1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Ruslan Abdullayev2,D,F

1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Adıyaman University, Turkey

2 Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Adıyaman University Research and Educational Hospital, Turkey


Background. Appendicitis is the most frequent acute abdominal disease and there are actual effective diagnostic tools for its detection.
Objectives. The objective of this study was to determine whether a thermal imaging camera is a useful tool for diagnosing acute appendicitis on the basis of abdominal skin surface temperature changes which reflect intra-abdominal inflammation.
Material and Methods. The prospective data consisting of surgical and pathological findings of 51 patients who had undergone appendectomy between January 2013 and December 2014 with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was collected, as well as thermal imaging camera recordings. A handheld infrared (IR) thermal imaging camera (ITIC) was used to take measurements.
Results. Of the 51 patients studied, 30 were male and 21 were female. Of these, 12 had their highest temperature measurement in the epigastric and 17 in the umbilical areas. These 2 groups constituted 56.9% of the patients. Regarding the lowest temperature measurement, 10 patients had the lowest temperature in the right inguinal and 15 in the hypogastric area. These 2 numbers constituted 49% of the patients.
Conclusion. This is the first report concerning the use of a thermal camera as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of acute abdominal illness. Considering the results of our study, ITIC is not feasible as a new diagnostic tool for acute appendicitis. It may be suitable for determining superficial inflammation; however, it is not suitable for determining deep inflammation.

Key words

acute appendicitis, diagnostic tool, thermal camera, infrared imaging, acute inflammation

References (29)

  1. Trum JW, Gubler FM, Laan R, van der Veen F. The value of palpation, varicoscreen contact thermography and colour Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of varicocele. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(6):1232–1235.
  2. Hovinen M, Siivonen J, Taponen S, et al. Detection of clinical mastitis with the help of a thermal camera. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91(2):4592–4598.
  3. Knobel RB, Guenther BD, Rice HE. Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease. Biol Res Nurs. 2011;13(3):274–282.
  4. Gowen A, Tiwari B, Cullen P, McDonnell K, O’Donnell C. Applications of thermal imaging in food quality and safety assessment. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2010;21(4):190–200.
  5. Wolfe WL. Infrared imaging devices in infrared medical radiography. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1964;121:57–70.
  6. Ring F. Thermal imaging today and its relevance to diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010;4(4):857–862.
  7. Hatipoglu S, Hatipoglu F, Abdullayev R. Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(14):4043–4049.
  8. Hatipoglu S, Hatipoglu F, Akbulut S, Abdullayev R. Management of acute appendicitis in pregnancy: Early diagnosis and early surgery! Sylwan. 2014;158(7):16–35.
  9. Malafaia O, Brioschi ML, Aoki SM, et al. Infrared imaging contribution for intestinal ischemia detection in wound healing. Acta Cir Bras. 2008;23(6):511–519.
  10. Cetinkaya MA, Demirutku A. Thermography in the assessment of equine lameness. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2012;36:43–48.
  11. Phillips CK, Hruby GW, Durak E, et al. Tissue response to surgical energy devices. Urology. 2008;71(4):744–748.
  12. Sasaki GH. Quantification of human abdominal tissue tightening and contraction after component treatments with 1064-nm/1320-nm la-ser-assisted lipolysis: Clinical implications. Aesthet Surg J. 2010;30(2):239–245.
  13. Ryoo NK, Kwon JW, Wee WR, Miller KM, Han YK. Thermal imaging comparison of Signature, Infiniti, and Stellaris phacoemulsification systems. BMC Ophthalmol. 2013;13:53.
  14. Cutti AG, Perego P, Fusca MC, Sacchetti R, Andreoni G. Assessment of lower limb prosthesis through wearable sensors and thermography. Sensors (Basel). 2014;14(3):5041–5055.
  15. Baker R, Whitehouse M, Kilshaw M, et al. Maximum temperatures of 89°C recorded during the mechanical preparation of 35 femoral heads for resurfacing. Acta Orthop. 2011;82(6):669–673.
  16. Sugimoto S, Nakajima H, Kodo K, et al. Miglitol increases energy expenditure by upregulating uncoupling protein 1 of brown adipose tissue and reduces obesity in dietary-induced obese mice. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014;11:14.
  17. Bilir A, Gülec S, Ekemen S. Karpal tünel sendromu düşünülen bir gebede termografi kullanımı. Osmangazi Tip Dergisi. 2015;27:91–96.
  18. Helmy A, Holdmann M, Rizkalla M. Application of thermography for non-invasive diagnosis of thyroid gland disease. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008;55(3):1168–1175.
  19. Bharara M, Cobb JE, Claremont DJ. Thermography and thermometry in the assessment of diabetic neuropathic foot: A case for furthering the role of thermal techniques. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2006;5(4):250–260.
  20. Katz LM, Nauriyal V, Nagaraj S, et al. Infrared imaging of trauma patients for detection of acute compartment syndrome of the leg. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(6):1756–1761.
  21. Fujita K, Noguchi M, Yuzuriha S, Yanagisawa D, Matsuo K. Usefulness of infrared thermal imaging camera for screening of postoperative surgical site infection after the Nuss procedure. Case Rep Surg. 2013;2013:946156.
  22. Azharuddin M, Bera SK, Datta H, Dasgupta AK. Thermal fluctuation based study of aqueous deficient dry eyes by non-invasive thermal imaging. Exp Eye Res. 2014;120:97– 102.
  23. Romano CL, Logoluso N, Dell’Oro F, Elia A, Drago L. Telethermographic findings after uncomplicated and septic total knee replacement. Knee. 2012;19(3):193–197.
  24. Braverman IM. The cutaneous microcirculation. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2000;5(1):3–9.
  25. Bonelli RM, Koltringer P. Autonomic nervous function assessment using thermal reactivity of microcirculation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111(10):1880–1888.
  26. Vainer BG. FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated vascular response in humans. Phys Med Biol. 2005;50(23):R63–94.
  27. Gorbach AM, Leeser DB, Wang H, et al. Assessment of cadaveric organ viability during pulsatile perfusion using infrared imaging. Trans-plantation. 2009;87(8):1163–1166.
  28. Chandrasoma P, Taylor CR. The Acute Inflammatory Response, sub-section Cardinal Clinical Signs (Chapter 3). The Host Response to Injury (Section II.), General Pathology (Part A), (3rd edition (Computer file) ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015.
  29. Serhan CN, Savill J. Resolution of inflammation: The beginning programs the end. Nat Immunol. 2005;6(12):1191–1197.