Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.4)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MEiN – 140 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2018, vol. 27, nr 8, August, p. 1055–1059

doi: 10.17219/acem/69084

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Hydroxyapatite coating on titanium endosseous implants for improved osseointegration: Physical and chemical considerations

Magdalena Łukaszewska-Kuska1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Piotr Krawczyk2,A,B,D,E,F, Agnieszka Martyla3,B,C,D,E,F, Wiesław Hędzelek1,A,E,F, Barbara Dorocka-Bobkowska4,C,E,F

1 Department of Prosthodontics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland

2 Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

3 Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells, Poznań, Poland

4 Department of Oral Pathology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland


Background. For many years, hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bioactive endosseous dental implant coating to improve osseointegration. As such, the coating needs to be of high purity, adequate thickness, crystalline, and of a certain roughness in order to stimulate rapid fixation and form a strong bond between the host bone and the implant. There are a number of ways of preparing the HA coating, resulting in various coating properties. Herein, we report the preparation of the HA coating using a direct electrochemical method without the need for subsequent heat treatment.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of the HP coating, deposited on titanium implants by a modified electrochemical method.
Material and Methods. The coating was characterized in terms of surface chemical composition, structure, morphology, coating thickness and roughness.
Results. The coating was found to be composed of homogenous HA with Ca/P and Ca/O ratios of 1.62 and 0.35, respectively. No other forms of calcium phosphate were detected. The degree of crystallinity of HA was 92.4%. The surface roughness was moderate (Sa = 1.04 μm) with the coating thickness of 2–3 μm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed a uniform, integrated layer of rod-like HA crystals with the longitudinal axes parallel to the implant surface.
Conclusion. The coating reported herein was found to have potentially favorable chemical and physical characteristics fostering osseointegration.

Key words

surface properties, hydroxyapatite, electrochemical techniques, endosseous implants

References (30)

  1. Jokstad A, Braegger U, Brunski JB, Carr AB, Naert I, Wennerberg A. Quality of dental implants. Int Dent J. 2003:53,409−443.
  2. Albrektsson T, Branemark PI, Hansson HA, Lindstrom J. Osseointegrated titanium implants: Requirements for ensuring a longlasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man. Acta Orthop Scand. 1981;52:155–170.
  3. Narayanan R, Seshadri SK, Kwon TY, Kim KH. Calcium phosphate-based coatings on titanium and its alloys. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater. 2008;85B:279–299.
  4. Yang Y, Dennison D, Ong JL. Protein adsorption and osteoblast precursor cell attachment to hydroxyapatite of different crystallinities. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2005;20:187−192.
  5. O’Hare P, Meenan BJ, Burke GA, Byrne G, Dowling D, Hunt JA. Biological responses to hydroxyapatite surfaces deposited via a co-incident microblasting technique. Biomaterials. 2010;3:515–522.
  6. Wang C, Karlis GA, Anderson GI, et al. Bone growth is enhanced by novel bioceramic coatings on Ti alloy implants. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;90:419−428.
  7. Le Guéhennec L, Soueidan A, Layrolle P, Amouriq Y. Surface treatments of titanium dental implants for rapid osseointegration. Dent Mater. 2007;23:844−854.
  8. Shen JW, Wu T, Wang Q, Pan HH. Molecular simulation of protein adsorption and desorption on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Biomaterials. 2008;29:513−532.
  9. Kilpadi KL, Chang PL, Bellis SL. Hydroxylapatite binds more serum proteins, purified integrins and osteoblast precursor cells than titanium or steel. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001;57:258−267.
  10. Sun L, Berndt CC, Gross KA, Kucuk A. Material fundamentals and clinical performance of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: A review. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2001;58:570–592.
  11. Beamson G, Briggs D. High Resolution XPS of Organic Polymers. The Scienta ESCA300 Database. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1992.
  12. Jenkins R, Snyder RL. Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffractomerty. New York , NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1996.
  13. Stötzel C, Müller FA, Reinert F, Niederdraenk F, Barralet JE, Gbureck U. Ion adsorption behaviour of hydroxyapatite with different crystallinities. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;74:91–95.
  14. Milella E, Cosentino F, Licciulli A, Massaro C. Preparation and characterisation of titania/hydroxyapatite composite coatings obtained by sol-gel process. Biomaterials. 2001;22:1425−1431.
  15. Zhu X, Eibl O, Scheideler L, Geis-Gerstorfer J. Characterization of nano hydroxyapatite/collagen surfaces and cellular behaviors. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;79:114−127.
  16. Hanawalt JD, Rinn HW, Frevel LK. Chemical analysis by X-ray diffraction. Anal Chem. 1938;10:457–512.
  17. Saremi M, Mottaghi Golshan B. Electrodeposition of nano size hydroxyapatite coating on Ti alloy. IJMSE. 2006;3:1−5.
  18. Ostrowski K, Dziedzic-Gocławska A, Stachowicz W, Michalik J. Radiation-induced paramagnetic centres in research on bone physiology. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;272:21−29.
  19. Landi W, Tampieri A, Celotti G, Sprio S. Densification behaviour and mechanisms of synthetic hydroxyapatites. J Eur Ceram Soc. 2000;20:2377–2387.
  20. Hu R, Lin CJ, Shi HY. A novel ordered nano hydroxyapatite coating electrochemically deposited on titanium substrate. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;80:687−692.
  21. Chen F, Lam WM, Lin CJ, et al. Biocompatibility of electrophoretical deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on roughen titanium surface: In vitro evaluation using mesenchymal stem cells. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007;82:183−191.
  22. Lin C, Han H, Zhang F, Li A. Electrophoretic deposition of HA/MWNTs composite coating for biomaterial applications. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008;19:2569−2574.
  23. Burke EM, Lucas LC. Dissolution kinetics of calcium phosphate coatings. Implant Dent. 1998;7:323−330.
  24. Eanes ED. Amorphous calcium phosphate. Oral Sci. 2001;18:130−147.
  25. Yang Y, Bumgardner JD, Cavin R, Carnes DL, Ong JL. Osteoblast precursor cell attachment on heat-treated calcium phosphate coatings. J Dent Res. 2003;82:449−453.
  26. Jung UW, Hwang JW, Choi DY, et al. Surface characteristics of a novel hydroxyapatite-coated dental implant. J Periodontal Implant Sci. 2012; 42:59−63.
  27. Huang J, Jayasinghe SN, Best SM, et al. Novel deposition of nano-sized silicone substituted hydroxyapatite by electrostatic spraying. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005;16:1137−1142.
  28. Katto M, Ishibashi K, Kurosawa K, et al. Crystallized hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by PLD with targets of different densities. J Phys Conf Ser. 2007;59:75−78.
  29. Cleries L, Fernandez-Pradas JM, Sardin G, Morenza JL. Dissolution behaviour of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by laser ablation. Biomaterials. 1998;19:1483−1487.
  30. Wennerberg A, Albrektson T. Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:172−184.