Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.736
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.135
Index Copernicus  – 168.52
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2018, vol. 27, nr 5, May, p. 695–701

doi: 10.17219/acem/68902

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Venous insufficiency: Differences in the content of trace elements. A preliminary report

Agnieszka Rusak1,B,C,D, Ewa Karuga-Kuźniewska2,A,E, Benita Wiatrak3,D,E, Maria Szymonowicz4,C,D, Mateusz Stolarski5,B, Małgorzata Radwan-Oczko6,B, Rafał J. Wiglusz7,C,D,E,F, Paweł Pohl8,A,C, Zbigniew Rybak4,D,E,F

1 Division of Histology and Embryology, Department of Human Morphology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Division of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Veterinary Administration, Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Bird and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland

3 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

4 Department of Experimental Surgery and Biomaterials Research, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

5 Department of Trauma Surgery, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum-Langendreer, University Hospital Bochum, Germany

6 Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

7 Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław, Poland

8 Division of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Metallurgy, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland


Background. Venous insufficiency is still a serious clinical problem. The exact cause and molecular mechanisms of this disease are still unknown. In this study, we try to identify whether there is a difference in the level of trace elements between healthy and pathological veins. Our results show that insufficient veins have different levels of some trace elements: magnesium, calcium, manganese, and silicon compared to control samples. This study could lead to a better understanding of the molecular causes of venous insufficiency and may help to develop better methods of treatment.
Objectives. Nowadays, venous diseases are a very common clinical phenomenon. Venous insufficiency is thought to be one of the most common vein diseases. The exact mechanisms of its etiology are still unknown, although from a clinical point of view some risk factors include gender, age, changing hormone levels, heredity, and standing or sitting for long periods. An imbalance in trace elements could also play a crucial role in the development and/or progression of venous insufficiency.
Material and Methods. The trace element content in varicose vein walls and in normal vein walls was measured using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after sample mineralization. Statistical analysis (the Mann-Whitney U test and the Friedman ANOVA) was performed to compare insufficient veins to controls (healthy veins).
Results. This study found statistically significant higher magnesium (Mg) ion levels in varicose veins compared to controls (p = 0.0067) and differences close to statistical significance in calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), and silicon (Si) ion levels.
Conclusion. The results obtained could indicate oxidative stress occurring in chronic venous insufficiency as well as free radical neutralization pathways due to superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity with Mg, Mn and copper (Cu) ion involvement. Our results are consistent with literature data and are preliminary in nature.

Key words

trace elements, venous insufficiency, venous pathology

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