Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2018, vol. 27, nr 4, April, p. 501–507
Publication type: original article
Electrocardiographic T-wave parameters in families with long QT syndrome
1 Department of Nursing and Social Medical Problems, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
2 Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
3 Department of Pediatric Cardiology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
4 Department of Nursing and Social Medical Problems, Students’ Research Group, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
Background. T-wave parameters, especially the Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe), reflect the total dispersion of repolarization, whose amplification may lead to the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias observed in the long QT syndrome (LQTS).
Objectives. The study attempted to evaluate QT, QTp (Q-Tpeak) and TpTe (Tpeak-Tend) intervals in unaffected and affected blood relatives of children with clinically confirmed LQTS as well as to determine whether the values of these repolarization parameters may be used in clinical practice.
Material and Methods. The study group included 47 affected blood relatives (27 LQTS1 and 20 LQTS2) and 68 unaffected family members without clinically confirmed LQTS symptoms. The TpTe, QT and QTp intervals were measured manually in the lead V5 of standard ECGs and corrected using Bazett’s and Fridericia’s formulas.
Results. The RR, QT, QTp and TpTe intervals with their corrected values were significantly longer (p < 0.0001) in the affected subjects than in the unaffected subjects and, similarly, in LQTS1 and LQTS2 patients compared with the unaffected family members. The TpTe interval in LQTS2 showed only a tendency to be longer compared to LQTS1, but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.0933). For affected blood relatives, only the TpTe interval (p < 0.0409) and QT interval, corrected with Bazett’s (p < 0.0393) and Fridericia’s (p < 0.0495) formulas, enabled differentiation between LQTS1 (mean TpTe = 103 ±15) and LQTS2 women (mean TpTe = 106 ±17). Moreover, there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the TpTe interval between the 6 sex subgroups: unaffected women and men as well as women and men with LQTS1 and LQTS2.
Conclusion. The electrocardiographic Tpeak-Tend parameter, in addition to the QT interval, is helpful in identifying affected blood relatives of children with LQTS, particularly for the group of LQTS1 and LQTS2 women. Further studies are required to assess the clinical importance of the TpTe interval in families with long QT syndrome.
repolarization, long QT syndrome, QT, Q-Tpeak, Tpeak-Tend intervals
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