Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.4)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MEiN – 140 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2018, vol. 27, nr 4, April, p. 469–476

doi: 10.17219/acem/68382

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

TEGDMA and UDMA monomers released from composite dental material polymerized with diode and halogen lamps

Agnieszka Wacławczyk1,A,B,C,D, Lidia Postek-Stefańska1,A,E,F, Daria Pietraszewska1,B,C,E, Ewa Birkner2,A,E,F, Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka2,A,C,E,F, Iwona Wysoczańska-Jankowicz1,C,E

1 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland

2 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland


Background. More than 35 substances released from composite fillings have been identified. Among these, basic monomers and the so-called co-monomers are most often reported. The substances released from polymer-based materials demonstrate allergenic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, and estrogenic properties.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers released from composite dental fillings to citrate-phosphate buffer with the pH of 4, 6, 8 after 24 h and 6 months from the polymerization.
Material and Methods. Ten samples for each polymerization method had been made from the composite material (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, USA), which underwent polymerization using the following lamps: halogen lamp (Translux CL, Heraeus Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) (sample H) and diode lamp (Elipar Freelight 2, 3M ESPE), with soft start function (group DS) and without that function (group DWS).
Results. It has been demonstrated that the type of light-curing units has a significant impact on the amount of TEGDMA and UDMA released. The amount of UDMA and TEGDMA monomers released from composite fillings differed significantly depending on the source of polymerization applied, as well as the pH of the solution and sample storage time.
Conclusion. Elution of the monomers from composite material polymerized using halogen lamp was significantly greater as compared to curing with diode lamps.

Key words

light curing units, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, fluorescence spectrometry

References (31)

  1. Polydorou O, König A, Hellwig E. Kümmerer K. Long-term release of monomers from modern dental-composite materials. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:68–75.
  2. Uctasli S, Tezvergil A, Lassila LVJ, Vallittu PK. The degree of conversion of fiber-reinforced composites polymerized using different light-curing sources. Dent Mater. 2005;21:469–475.
  3. Rogalewicz R, Voelkel A. Compounds released from resin-based fillings and their influence on the human body. Dent Forum. 2006;34(1): 49–55.
  4. Schwengberg S, Bohlen H, Kleinsasser N, et al. In vitro embryotoxicity assessment with dental restorative materials. J Dent. 2005;33:49–55.
  5. Kleinsasser NH, Schmid K, Sassen AW, et al. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of resin monomers in human salivary gland tissue and lymphocytes as assessed by the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Biomaterials. 2006;27:1762–1770.
  6. Nocca G, Martorana GE, De Sole P, et al. Effects of 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate on HL-60 cell metabolism. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:175–181.
  7. Schweikl H, Spagnuolo G, Schmalz G. Genetic and cellular toxicology of dental resin monomers. J Dent Res. 2006;85(10):870–877.
  8. Demirci M, Hiller KA, Bosl C, Galler K, Schmalz G, Schweikl H. The induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by dental adhesives. Dent Mater. 2008;24:362–371.
  9. Huang FM, Tsai CH, Ding SJ, Chang YC. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulp cells stimulated by dentin bonding agents. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endo. 2005;100: 501–506.
  10. Moharamzadeh K, Van Noort R, Brook IM, Scutt AM. Cytotoxicity of resin monomers on human gingival fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. Dent Mater. 2007;23:40–44.
  11. Lefeuvre M, Bourd K, Loriot MA, et al. TEGDMA modulates glutathione transferase P1 activity in gingival fibroblasts. J Dent Res. 2004; 83(12):914–919.
  12. Hamann CP, Rodgers PA, Sullivan KM. Occupational allergens in dentistry. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;4:403–409.
  13. Mousavinasab SM. Biocompatibility of composite resins. Dent Res J. 2011;8:21–29.
  14. Volk J, Engelmann J, Leyhausen G, Geurtsen W. Effects of three resin monomers on the cellular glutathione concetration of cutured human gingival fibroblasts. Dent Mater. 2006;22:499–505.
  15. Voltarelli RF, Santos-Daroz CB, Alves MC, Deris AR, Marchi MG. Effect of different light-curing devices and aging procedures on composite Knoop microhardness. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23(4):473–479.
  16. Mills RW, Jandt KD, Ashworth SH. Dental composite depth of cure with halogen and blue light emitting diode technology. Br Dent J. 1999;186(8):388–391.
  17. Jandt KD, Mills RW, Blackwell GB, Ashworth SH. Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs). Dent Mater. 2000;16:41–47.
  18. Örtengren U, Langer S, Göransson A, Lundgren T. Influence of pH and time on organic substance release from a model dental composite: A fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Eur J Oral Sci. 2004;112:530–537.
  19. Örtengren U, Andersson F, Elgh U, Terselius B, Karlsson S. Influence of pH and storage time on the sorption and solubility behaviour of three composite resin materials. J Dent. 2001;29:35–41.
  20. Moharamzadeh K, Van Noort R, Brook IM, Scutt AM. HPLC analysis of components released from dental composites with different resin compositions using different extraction media. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18:133–137.
  21. Munksgaard EC, Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E. Elution of TEGDMA and BisGMA from a resin and a resin composite cured with halogen or plasma light. Eur J Oral Sci. 2000;108:341–345.
  22. Michelsen VB, Moe G, Strøm MB, Jensen E, Lygre H. Quantitative analysis of TEGDMA and HEMA eluted by use of GC/MS and tailor-made internal standards. Dent Mater. 2008;24:724–731.
  23. Örtengren U, Wellendorf H, Karlsson S, Ruyter IE. Water sorption and solubility of dental composites and identification of monomers released in an aqueous environment. J Oral Rehabil. 2001;28:1106–1115.
  24. Sideridou ID, Achilias DS. Elution study of unreacted Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and Bis-EMA from light-cured dental resin composites using HPLC. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2005;74(1):617–626.
  25. Pulgar R, Olea-Serrano MF, Novillo-Fertrell A, et al. Determination of bishenol A and related aromatic compounds release from Bis-GMA based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108:21–27.
  26. Lee JK, Choi JY, Lim BS, Lee YK, Sakaguchi RL. Change of properties during storage of a UDMA/TEGDMA dental resin. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2004;68B:216–221.
  27. Arrais CAG, Pontes FM, Santos LPS, Leite ER, Giannini M. Degree of conversion of adhesive systems light-cured by LED and halogen light. Braz Dent J. 2007;18(1):54–59.
  28. Witzel MF, Calheiros FC, Gonçalves F, Kawano Y, Braga RR. Influence of photoactivation method on conversion, mechanical properties, degradation in ethanol and contraction stress of resin-based materials. J Dent. 2005;33:773–779.
  29. Lohbauer U, Rahiotis C, Krämer N, Petschelt A, Eliades G. The effect of different light-curing units on fatigue behavior and degree of conversion of a resin composite. Dent Mater. 2005;21:608–615.
  30. Silva EM, Poskus LT, Guimarăes JGA, Lima Barcellos A, Fellows CE. Influence of light polymerization modes on degree of conversion and crosslink density of dental composites. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008;19:1027–1032.
  31. Carvalho AA, Moreira FCL, Fonseca RB, et al. Effect of light sources and curing mode techniques on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength of a composite resin. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012;20(2):246–252.