Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2018, vol. 27, nr 3, March, p. 351–355
Publication type: original article
Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. infections in forest rangers from a single forest district in western Poland
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology and Acquired Immunodeficiencies, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
2 Regional Blood Center in Poznań, Poland
3 Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
4 Department of Infectious Diseases, Jozef Strus Multidisciplinary Municipal Hospital in Poznań, Poland
5 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
6 Department of Anatomy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
7 Department of General and Transplant Surgery, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
Background. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HEV exposure markers in FRs from a single forest district in Greater Poland in relation to anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) IgG, and anti-Borrelia spp. IgM and IgG antibodies.
Material and Methods. In total, 138 participants (48 FRs and 90 blood donors – BDs) were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck, Germany) and 96 individuals (48 FRs and 48 BDs) were tested for anti-HAV IgG (ARCHITECT immunoassays, Abbott Laboratories, Wiesbaden, Germany); anti-Borrelia IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN kits) were assessed in FRs only.
Results. Anti-HEV markers were detected in 3 participants (2.2%; IgM in 1 FR, IgG in 2 BDs), less frequently than anti-HAV (16 out of 96 individuals, about 17%; FRs 19% vs BDs 15%) or anti-Borrelia antibodies (18 out of 48 individuals, 37.5%) (p < 0.0001 for both). Older study participants (≥45 years of age) were more frequently HAV-seropositive (29% vs 4% of the younger individuals; p = 0.0012).
Conclusion. We failed to unequivocally prove HEV exposure in FRs. The HAV seroprevalence in this study paralleled the situation in the general population. Exposure to Borrelia spp. in FRs was common.
hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, Borrelia, seroprevalence, Poland
- Rein DB, Stevens GA, Theaker J, Wittenborn JS, Wiersma ST. The global burden of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2 in 2005. Hepatology.
- Tsang TH, Denison EK, Williams HV, Venczel LV, Ginsberg MM, Vugia DJ. Acute hepatitis E infection acquired in California. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:618–619.
- Inoue J, Ueno Y, Nagasaki F, et al. Sporadic acute hepatitis E occurred constantly during the last decade in northeast Japan. J Gastroenterol.
- Lapa D, Capobianchi MR, Garbuglia AR. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in European countries. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:25711–25743.
- Smith DB, Simmonds P, Jameel S, et al.; International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Hepeviridae Study Group. Consensus proposals for classification of the family Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:2223–2232.
- Lee GH, Tan BH, Chi-Yuan Teo E, et al. Chronic infection with camelid hepatitis E virus in a liver transplant recipient who regularly consumes camel meat and milk. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:355–357.
- Said B, Ijaz S, Kafatos G, et al.; Hepatitis E Incident Investigation Team. Hepatitis E outbreak on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1738–1744.
- Crossan CL, Simpson KJ, Craig DG, et al. Hepatitis E virus in patients with acute severe liver injury. World J Hepatol. 2014;6:426–434.
- Lewis HC, Wichmann O, Duizer E. Transmission routes and risk factors for autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection in Europe: A systematic review. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:145–166.
- De Schryver A, De Schrijver K, François G, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection: An emerging occupational risk? Occup Med (Lond). 2015;65:667–672.
- Ivanova A, Tefanova V, Reshetnjak I, et al. Hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs, wild boars, pig farm workers, and hunters in Estonia. Food Environ Virol. 2015;7:403–412.
- Karetnyi YV, Gilchrist MJ, Naides SJ. Hepatitis E virus infection prevalence among selected populations in Iowa. J Clin Virol. 1999;14:51–55.
- Dremsek P, Wenzel JJ, Johne R, et al. Seroprevalence study in forestry workers from eastern Germany using novel genotype 3- and rat hepatitis E virus-specific immunoglobulin G ELISAs. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2012;201:189–200.
- Carpentier A, Chaussade H, Rigaud E, et al. High hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in forestry workers and in wild boars in France. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2888–2893.
- Chaussade H, Rigaud E, Allix A, et al. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and risk factors for individuals in working contact with animals. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:504–508.
- Yoon Y, Jeong HS, Yun H, et al. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence in the general population of the Republic of Korea in 2007–2009: A nationwide cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:517.
- Jothikumar N, Cromeans TL, Robertson BH, Meng XJ, Hill VR. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J Virol Methods. 2006;131:65–71.
- Fogeda M, de Ory F, Avellón A, Echevarría JM. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis E virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with suspected hepatitis E. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:259–261.
- Richard S, Oppliger A. Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers – Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22:43–50.
- Sadkowska-Todys M, Baumann-Popczyk A, Wnukowska N, Pop-czyk B, Kucharczyk B, Gołąb E. Occurrence and prevalence of selected zoonotic agents: Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spiralis and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the population of Polish hunters – Results of the study conducted in 2010–2012. Przegl Epidemiol. 2015;69:673–678.
- Bura M, Michalak M, Chojnicki M, Czajka A, Kowala-Piaskowska A, Mozer-Lisewska I. Seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 182 Polish patients. Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 2015;69:320–326.
- Ślusarczyk J, Szemraj J, Jabłkowska-Górecka K, Juszczyk G, Białkowska J. Koinfekcja wirusem zapalenia wątroby typu E (HEV) u pacjentów zakażonych wirusem zapalenia wątroby typu C (HCV). Przegl Epidemiol. 2015;69(Suppl 1):13.
- Dreier J, Juhl D. Autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections: A new transfusion-associated risk? Transfus Med Hemother. 2014;41:29–39.
- Avellon A, Morago L, Garcia-Galera Del Carmen M, Munoz M, Echevarría JM. Comparative sensitivity of commercial tests for hepatitis E genotype 3 virus antibody detection. J Med Virol. 2015;87:1934–1939.
- Bura M, Bukowska A, Bura A, Michalak M, Mozer-Lisewska I. Hepatitis E virus antibodies in HIV-infected patients and blood donors from western Poland: A preliminary report. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26:577–579.
- Khudyakov Y, Kamili S. Serological diagnostics of hepatitis E virus infection. Virus Res. 2011;161:84–92.
- Hunter JG, Madden RG, Stone AM, et al. Coastal clustering of HEV; Cornwall, UK. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;28:323–327.
- Mansuy JM, Gallian P, Dimeglio C, et al. A nationwide survey of hepatitis E viral infection in French blood donors. Hepatology. 2016;63:1145–1154.
- Larska M, Krzysiak MK, Jabłoński A, Kęsik J, Bednarski M, Rola J. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland. Zoonoses Public Health. 2014;62:105–110.
- Bura M, Mozer-Lisewska I. Quo vadis, HAV? Hepatologia. 2016;16:17–24.