Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2018, vol. 27, nr 11, November, p. 1505–1513
Publication type: original article
Loganic acid and anthocyanins from cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits modulate diet-induced atherosclerosis and redox status in rabbits
1 Department of Pharmacology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
2 Department of Fruit, Vegetable and Plant Nutraceutical Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
3 Department of Pathology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
4 Arboretum and Institute of Physiography in Bolestraszyce, Poland
5 Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Rzeszów, Poland
Background. Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a plant growing in southeast Europe, in the past used in folk medicine. There are many previous publications showing the preventive effects of (poly)phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, on cardiovascular diseases, but there is a lack of studies comparing the effects of (poly)phenolics and other constituents of fruits.
Objectives. We have attempted to determine if iridoids and anthocyanins from cornelian cherry fruits may affect the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta as well as lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the livers of cholesterol-fed rabbits.
Material and Methods. Fractions of iridoids and anthocyanins were analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods. Loganic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.) and a mixture of anthocyanins (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days to rabbits fed with 1% cholesterol. Histopathological samples of the aortas and the livers were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde – MDA) and redox status (glutathione – GSH, glutathione peroxidase – Gpx and superoxide dismutase - SOD) were analyzed using spectrophotometrical methods.
Results. Both loganic acid (an iridoid) and a mixture of anthocyanins diminished the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta. Both substances also diminished lipid peroxidation, measured as a decrease of MDA, and attenuated oxidative stress, measured as an increase of GSH in the livers depleted by cholesterol feeding. Unexpectedly, cholesterol feeding decreased the Gpx activity in the liver, which was reversed by both investigated substances.
Conclusion. We have shown that both iridoids and anthocyanins help prevent fed-induced atherosclerosis, and the consumption of fruits rich in these substances may elicit beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.
atherosclerosis, glutathione, anthocyanins, cornelian cherry, loganic acid
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