Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2018, vol. 27, nr 10, October, p. 1397–1401
Publication type: original article
The relationship between oral hygiene level and gingivitis in children
1 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
Background. The condition of the teeth, periodontium and oral mucosa determines directly and indirectly the general health of the organism and, therefore, requires to be monitored. Childhood, especially the first years of life, is the time when proper health-promoting behaviors are formed, allowing the future prevention of such diseases as dental decay and gingivitis. Studies concerning the gingival status and bleeding in children are scarce, although such knowledge can be useful in planning preventive programs.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between oral hygiene level and the likelihood of gingival bleeding.
Material and Methods. The examined group comprised 2,856 children aged 7 years, living in an urban area in western Poland. The hygiene status was evaluated according to the simplified Debris Index (DI-S) criteria and the periodontal status was evaluated according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of gingival bleeding.
Results. The average value of DI-S was 0.91; it was not significantly different between girls and boys. In more than a half of the studied subjects (59.10%), oral hygiene was fair, in 12.46% – poor. Clinically healthy periodontium was observed in 91.32% of cases, bleeding on probing was present in 7.46% of cases. Calculus was detected in 1.22% of the children. Logistic regression analysis of the predictors of gingival bleeding showed that children with fair and poor oral hygiene were respectively 6 and 25 times more likely to show bleeding on probing compared to the children with very good oral hygiene.
Conclusion. In the studied group, it was noted that there is a need to promote oral hygiene, as it contributes to the fall in gingivitis prevalence among school children.
gingivitis, oral hygiene, Polish children
- Leous P, Palianskaya L, Leous L. Oral hygiene and gingival inflammation in 6–8-year-olds from a junior school in Minsk who participated in a supervised oral hygiene programme. Oral Health Dent Manag. 2009;7:27–30.
- Arnlaugsson S, Magnusson TE. Prevalence of gingivitis in 6-year-olds in Reykjavik, Iceland. Acta Odontol Scand. 1996;54(4):247–250.
- Albandar JM. Global risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2002;29:177–206.
- Hemadneh S, Ayesh D. Prevalence of gingivitis in 6-7 year old Jordanian children. Pakistan Oral & Dental Journal. 2011;31:168–170.
- Varas F, Zillmann G, Munoz A, et al. Periodontal status and treatment needs of children from 6 to 8 years old in the Santiago Metropolitan Region of Chile. J Oral Res. 2011;26:10–15.
- Green JC, Vermillon JR. The simplified oral hygiene index. JADA. 1964;68:7–13.
- World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys, Basic Methods. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998:1–67.
- Clerehugh V, Tugnait A. Diagnosis and management of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Periodontol 2000. 2001;26:146–168.
- Ainamo J, Barmes D, Beagrie G, Cutress T, Martinn J, Sardo Infirri J. Development of the World Health Organization (WHO) Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Int Dent J. 1982;32(3):281–291.
- Shaghaghian S, Bahmani M, Amin M. Impact of oral hygiene on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children. Int J Dent Hyg. 2015;13(3):192–198.
- Al-Mutawa SA, Shyama M, Al-Duwairi Y, Soparkar P. Oral hygiene status of Kuwaiti schoolchildren. East Mediterr Health J. 2011;17(5):387–391.
- de Almeida C, Petersen P, Andre S, Toscano A. Changing oral health status of 6-and 12-years-old schoolchildren in Portugal. Community Dent Health. 2003;20(4):211–216.
- Krishnam R, Vasanti D, Raghavendra J, Niranjani K, Saravana MS. Oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population of eastern Ghats: An epidemiological study. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7(7):108–110.
- Anupriya S, Pradeep B, Ashoo G, Suresh S, Ashish S. Oral health status and treatment needs among primary school going children in Nagrota Bagwan block of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2014;18(6):762–766.
- Składnik-Jankowska J, Kaczmarek U. Periodontal status in children and young adults from Lower Silesia region. Dent Med Probl. 2013;50(2):167–177.
- Dini EL, Foschini AL, Brandao IM. Periodontal conditions in a 7–19-year-old student population in Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, 1995. Cad Saude Publica. 1997;13(3):321–324.
- Bossnjak A, Curilovic Z, Vuccicevic-Boras V, et al. Prevalence of gingivitis in 6- to 11-year-old Croatian children. Eur J Med Res. 2003;8(7):313–317.
- Varenne B, Petersen PE, Ouattara S. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa. Int Dent J. 2004;54(2):83–89.
- Banach J. Periodontal status and periodontal treatment needs among children and adolscents in 1987 and 1995 [in Polish]. Przegl Stom Wieku Rozw. 1996;2:34–38.
- Chłapowska J. The condition and periodontal treatment needs in 7-year-olds living in the Poznań voivodeship [in Polish]. Przegl Stom Wieku Rozw. 1998;1:18–22.
- Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska T. Selected factors of the biotope of the oral cavity in children with tendency to dental plaque mineralization [PhD dissertation]. Poznań, Poland: Poznan University of Medical Sciences;2005.
- Gopinath VK, Rahman B, Awad M. Assessment of gingival health among school children in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Eur J Dent. 2015;9(1):36–40.