Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.736
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.135
Index Copernicus  – 168.52
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2017, vol. 26, nr 7, October, p. 1155–1162

doi: 10.17219/acem/65726

Publication type: review article

Language: English

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Trace metal ions release from fixed orthodontic appliances and DNA damage in oral mucosa cells by in vivo studies: A literature review

Patrycja Downarowicz1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Marcin Mikulewicz2,A,E,F

1 Department of Facial Abnormalities, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Department of Maxillofacial Orthopaedics and Orthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


An overview of professional literature referring to the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances and their influence on oral mucosa in conditions of in vivo are presented, along with a detailed analysis of the exposure of the cells of cheek mucosa epithelium to metal ions. Electronic databases (PubMed, Elsevier, Ebsco) were searched with no language restrictions. The relevant orthodontic journals and reference lists were checked for all eligible studies. A total of 38 scientific articles were retrieved in the initial search. However, only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. Statistically significant differences in the levels of the amount of nickel ions, cobalt ions and chromium ions were observed in cells of cheek mucosa. The most biocompatible material used in the production of fixed orthodontic appliances is titanium, and the least biocompatible material is steel, which releases the largest amount of nickel and chromium. Metal ions are released from fixed orthodontic appliances only in the first phase of treatment. It is recommended to conduct further, long-term research on a larger number of patients to define the influence of using fixed orthodontic appliances and biological effect they might have on tissues.

Key words

atomic absorption spectrophotometry, cells of cheek mucosa, chromium ions, nickel ions, orthodontic treatment

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