Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.7)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MNiSW – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2017, vol. 26, nr 6, September, p. 925–930

doi: 10.17219/acem/62891

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

The effects of crocin on the symptoms of depression in subjects with metabolic syndrome

Irandokht Nikbakht Jam1,B,C,D, Amir Hossein Sahebkar2,A,E, Saeid Eslami3,A, Naghmeh Mokhber4,A, Mina Nosrati1,B, Mohammad Khademi3,A,B, Mojtaba Foroutan-Tanha3,B, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan1,A,D,E,F, Farzin Hadizadeh2,A,E, Gordon Ferns5,E, Masoumeh Abbasi6,B

1 Metabolic Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

2 Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

3 Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

4 Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

5 Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical Education, Mayfield House, University of Brighton, Staffordshire, UK

6 Qaem Hospital Cardiology Department, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Abstract

Background. Studies have suggested that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased depressive symptoms, and reducing depression in subjects with MetS is important. Crocin, an active component of saffron, has useful properties for subjects with MetS, including antidepressant properties.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a preparation of crocin on the symptoms of depression in subjects with MetS, and the relationship between changes in those symptoms and the serum pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance (PAB).
Material and Methods. This sub-study was carried out on 34 subjects with MetS from the authors’ previous randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial (RCT), all of whom met the inclusion criteria for this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and placebo groups (n = 17 in each group) and received each 30 mg of crocin (2 tablets of 15 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The BDI questionnaire was completed for each subject at the baseline and at the end of the 8th week of treatment. Blood samples were taken from the subjects before and after the intervention period. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS for Windows, v. 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA).
Results. Out of the 34 participants enrolled, 33 completed the trial. The degree of depression decreased significantly in the crocin group (p = 0.005), but not in the placebo group (p > 0.05), and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p = 0.013). No significant relationship was observed between changes in depression symptoms and changes in the serum PAB (p > 0.05).
Conclusion. This study demonstrates that at a dose of 30 mg per day for 8 weeks, crocin reduced the symptoms of depression in subjects with MetS compared to the control group, and this effect was independent of its effect on the serum PAB.

Key words

crocin, metabolic syndrome, depression, saffron

References (27)

  1. Mottillo S, Filion KB, Genest J, et al. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(14):1113–1132.
  2. Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A, Zahedi-Asl S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;61(1):29–37.
  3. Sekita A, Arima H, Ninomiya T, et al. Elevated depressive symptoms in metabolic syndrome in a general population of Japanese men: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:862.
  4. Foley DL, Morley KI, Madden PA, Heath AC, Whitfield JB, Martin NG. Major depression and the metabolic syndrome. Twin research and human genetics. The Official Journal of the ISTS. 2010;13(4):347–358.
  5. Marazziti D, Rutigliano G, Baroni S, Landi P, Dell’Osso L. Metabolic syndrome and major depression. CNS Spectrums. 2014;19(4):293–304.
  6. Koponen H, Jokelainen J, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Kumpusalo E, Vanhala M. Metabolic syndrome predisposes to depressive symptoms: A population-based 7-year follow-up study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(2):178–182.
  7. Pan A, Keum N, Okereke OI, et al. Bidirectional association between depression and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(5):1171–1180.
  8. Goldbacher EM, Bromberger J, Matthews KA. Lifetime history of major depression predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2009;71(3):266–272.
  9. Kemp DE, Ismail-Beigi F, Calabrese JR. Antidepressant response associated with pioglitazone: Support for an overlapping pathophysiology between major depression and metabolic syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(5):619.
  10. McIntyre RS, Soczynska JK, Konarski JZ, et al. Should depressive syndromes be reclassified as “Metabolic Syndrome Type II”? Ann Clin Psychiatry. Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists. 2007;19(4):257–264.
  11. Vykoukal D, Davies MG. Vascular biology of metabolic syndrome. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2011;54(3):819–831.
  12. Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(3):220–229.
  13. Bonnet F, Irving K, Terra JL, Nony P, Berthezene F, Moulin P. Anxiety and depression are associated with unhealthy lifestyle in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2005;178(2):339–344.
  14. Sankhla M, Sharma TK, Mathur K, et al. Relationship of oxidative stress with obesity and its role in obesity induced metabolic syndrome. Clinical Laboratory. 2012;58(5–6):38–392.
  15. Michel TM, Pulschen D, Thome J. The role of oxidative stress in depressive disorders. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2012;18(36):5890–5899.
  16. Alamdari DH, Paletas K, Pegiou T, Sarigianni M, Befani C, Koliakos G. A novel assay for the evaluation of the prooxidant-antioxidant balance, before and after antioxidant vitamin administration in type II diabetes patients. Clin Biochem. 2007;40:248–254.
  17. Alamdari DH, Ordoudi SA, Nenadis N, et al. Comparison of prooxidant-antioxidant balance method with crocin method for determination of total prooxidant-antioxidant capacity. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2009;12:93–99.
  18. Hausenblas HA, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2013;11(6):377–383.
  19. Alavizadeh SH, Hosseinzadeh H. Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: A comprehensive review. Food and chemical toxicology. An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2014;64:65–80.
  20. Nikbakht-Jam I, Khademi M, Eslami S, et al. Effect of crocin on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial (in press).
  21. Shemshian AS, Kermani T, Seyed HM, et al. Saffron (Crocus sativus) in the treatment of anxiety and depression: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Clin Biochem. 2011;44(13):S118.
  22. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4:561–571.
  23. Hadizadeh F, Mohajeri SA, Seifi M. Extraction and purification of crocin from saffron stigmas employing a simple and efficient crystallization method. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS. 2010;13(14):691–698.
  24. Hosseinzadeh, H, Karimi G, Niapoor M. Antidepressant effects of crocus sativus stigma extracts and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. J Med Plants. 2004;3:48–58.
  25. Akhondzadeh S, Fallah-Pour H, Afkham K, Jamshidi AH, Khalighi-Cigaroudi F. Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A pilot double-blind randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004;4:12.
  26. Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Jamshidi AH. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97(2):281–284.
  27. Wang Y, Han T, Zhu Y, et al. Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2010;64(1):24–30.