Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2017, vol. 26, nr 1, January-February, p. 143–148
Publication type: review article
Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in obesity and glucose homeostasis
1 Department and Clinic of Angiology, Hypertension and Diabetology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
2 Department and Clinic of Ophtalmology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity plays a significant role in the etiology of obesity and is essential for glucose homeostasis, the development of hyperinsulinaemia and subsequent increased fat deposition. Several polymorphisms in the GR gene have been described, and at least three of them seem to be associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity and changes in glucose homeostasis, and other metabolic parameters. The N363S polymorphism has been associated with increased sensitivity to glucocorticoides, increased insulin response to dexamethasone and increased plasma glucose level. BclI polymorphism is associated with increased abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and increased insulin resistance. Another polymorphism, ER22/23EK, in contrast to the others, is associated with relative resistance to glucocoricides actions and more beneficial metabolic profile-lower insulin resistance level, decreased lower cardiovascular risk and subseuent prolongation of life time. More research is still needed to understand the mechanisms behind these associations at the molecular level.
obesity, glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism, N363S, BclI, ER22/23EK
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