Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.0
Scopus CiteScore – 3.7 (CiteScore Tracker 3.3)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MNiSW – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2016, vol. 25, nr 6, November-December, p. 1303–1312

doi: 10.17219/acem/62828

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Objectification of Orthodontic Treatment Needs: Does the Classification of Malocclusions or a History of Orthodontic Treatment Matter?

Anna Kozanecka1,A,B,C,D, Michał Sarul2,C,D,E,F, Beata Kawala2,E,F, Joanna Antoszewska-Smith2,C,D,E,F

1 Department of Dentofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Poznan University of Medical Science, Poland

2 Department of Dentofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


Background. Orthodontic classifications make it possible to give an accurate diagnosis but do not indicate an objective orthodontic treatment need. In order to evaluate the need for treatment, it is necessary to use such indicators as the IOTN.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to find (i) relationships between individual diagnosis and objective recommendations for treatment and (ii) an answer to the question whether and which occlusal anomalies play an important role in the objectification of treatment needs.
Material and Methods. Two hundred three 18-year-old adolescents (104 girls, 99 boys) were examined. In order to recognize occlusal anomalies, the classifications proposed by Orlik-Grzybowska and Ackerman-Proffit were used. The occlusal anomalies were divided into three categories: belonging to both classifications, typical of OrlikGrzybowska classification and typical of Ackerman-Proffit classification. In order to determine the objective need for orthodontic treatment, the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the IOTN was used.
Results. The occurrence of the following malocclusions covered by both classifications, namely abnormal overjet, crossbite and Angle’s class, had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) impact on an increase of treatment needs in the subjects (DHC > 3). As for the classification by Orlik-Grzybowska, dental malpositions and canine class significantly affected the need for orthodontic treatment, while in the case of the Ackerman-Proffit scheme, it was asymmetry and crowding. There was no statistically significant correlation between past orthodontic treatment and current orthodontic treatment need.
Conclusion. IOTN may be affected by a greater number of occlusal anomalies than it was assumed. Orthodontic treatment received in the past slightly reduces the need for treatment in 18-year-olds.

Key words

statistics, orthodontics, malocclusion, Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need

References (19)

  1. Angle EH: Treatment of malocclusion of the teeth and fractures of the maxillae. In: Angle’s System, Eds.: SS White Dental Mfg Co., Philadelphia 1900, 6th ed.
  2. Ackerman JL, Proffit WR: The characteristics of malocclusion: A modern approach to classification and diagnosis. Am J Orthod 1969, 56, 443–454.
  3. Orlik-Grzybowska A: Zagadnienie diagnostyki ortodontycznej. Czas Stomat 1957, 2–3, 147–160 [in Polish].
  4. Brook PH, Shaw WC: The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. Eur J Orthod 1989, 11, 309–320.
  5. Richmond S, Shaw WC, O’Brien KD, Buchanan IB, Jones R, Stephens CD, Roberts CT, Andrews M: The development of the PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating): Reliability and validity. Eur J Orthod 1992, 14, 125–139.
  6. Daniels C, Richmond S: The development of the index of complexity, outcome and need (ICON). J Orthod 2000, 27, 149–162.
  7. Richmond S: Evaluating Effective Orthodontic Care. FIRST Numerics Ltd 2008, 15–30.
  8. Proffit WR, Fields HW, Moray LJ: Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in the United States: Estimates from the NHANES-III survey. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1998, 13, 97–106.
  9. Colonna-Walewska M: Assessment of the prevalence of acoustic symptoms within the temporomandibular joints in school-going population with co-existing malocclusion. J Stom 2008, 61, 260–266.
  10. Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R: Malocclusion frequency in Swedish and immigrant adolescents – influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod 2007, 29, 79–87.
  11. Lisiecka K, Weyna E, Tomasik M, Bojba A, Szych Z: Stan zdrowia jamy ustnej dzieci i młodzieży z województwa zachodniopomorskiego w świetle badań epidemiologicznych z lat 1998 i 1999. Mag Stomatol 2003, 9, 79–82 [in Polish].
  12. Gábris K, Márton S, Madléna M: Prevalence of malocclusions in Hungarian adolescents. Eur J Orthod 2006, 28, 467–470.
  13. Richmond S, Buchanan IB, Burden JB, O’Brien KD, Andrews M, Roberts CT, Turbill EA: Calibration of dentists in the use of occlusal indices. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1995, 23, 173–176.
  14. Beglin FM, Firestone AR, Vig K.WL, Beck FM, Kuthy RA, Wade D: A comparison of the reliability and validity of 3 occlusal indexes of orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001, 120, 240–246.
  15. Burden DJ, Pine CM, Burnside G: Modified IOTN: An orthodontic treatment need index for use in oral health surveys. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001, 29, 220–225.
  16. Kerosuo H, Kerosuo E, Niemi M, Simola H: The need for treatment and satisfaction with dental appearance among young Finnish adults with and without a history of orthodontic treatment. J Orofac Orthop 2000, 61, 330–340.
  17. Chestnutt IG, Burden DJ, Steele JG, Pitts NB, Nuttall NM, Morris AJ: The orthodontic condition of children in the United Kingdom, 2003. Br Dent J 2006, 200, 609–612.
  18. Souames M, Bassigny F, Zenati N, Riordan PJ, Boy-Lefevre ML: Orthodontic treatment need in French schoolchildren: An epidemiological study using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Eur J Orthod 2006, 28, 605–609.
  19. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T: Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod 2010, 32, 49–53.