Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.727
Index Copernicus  – 166.39
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2016, vol. 25, nr 6, November-December, p. 1139–1147

doi: 10.17219/acem/63752

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NFKB) in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Cristian Fabian Layton Tovar1,A,B,C,D, Hugo Mendieta Zerón2,A,C,D,E,F, Maria Del Socorro Camarillo Romero3,A,E, Yanko V. Fabila Sánchez4,A,C,E, Isidoro Tejocote Romero5,B,E

1 School of Medicine, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Toluca, Mexico

2 Latin American Scientific Association and Ciprés Medical Group, Toluca, Mexico

3 Medical Sciences Research Center, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Toluca, Mexico

4 Terranova University, Toluca, México

5 Hematology and Oncology Service, The Children’s Hospital, Maternal Child of the State of Mexico Institute, Toluca, Mexico


Background. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in early childhood. In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the activity of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) has been associated with changes in the transcriptional activity and expression of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) in the mononuclear cells of bone marrow.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the possible role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) as prognostic variables in pediatric patients with ALL.
Material and Methods. This was a descriptive, transversal, and observational study. Bone marrow and blood samples were obtained from 30 children with newly-diagnosed ALL, who were seen at the Hematology-Oncology Service, Hospital para el Niño (HPN), Toluca, Mexico, from 2014‒2015. Anthropometric variables, clinical lab results, immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities were registered. GSK-3β was evaluated through immunohistochemistry, and NFKB messenger RNA (mRNA) with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cases of ALL were classified into two groups of risk: high and habitual.
Results. Thirty patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 7.1 years (range 2‒13 years). Twenty-one were male and 9 female. Employing the morphological classification, 26 patients had type L1 ALL and the remaining 4 patients had type L2 ALL. Abnormal genes were found in 7 (23.33%) patients, ETV-RUNX1 in 3, followed by TCF3-PBX1 (two), STL1-TAL1 (one), and BCR-ABL1 (one). NFKB relative expression levels, in comparison to the GSK-3β immunohistochemistry results of the bone marrow samples, showed significant differences between positive and negative cases (p = 0.001) and between weak-positive and negative cases (p = 0.002).
Conclusion. These results suggest that GSK-3β may be a prognostic biomarker in childhood ALL.

Key words

acute lymphoblastic leukemia, GSK-3β, NFKB, prognostic

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