Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2016, vol. 25, nr 4, July-August, p. 781–787
Publication type: review article
The Role of Mast Cells in Alzheimer’s Disease
1 Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA
2 Immunology Division, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Immunity and inflammation are deeply involved in Alzheimer’s disease. The most important properties of pathological Alzheimer’s disease are the extracellular deposits of amyloid â-protein plaque aggregates along with other unknown mutated proteins, which are implicated in immunity and inflammation. Mast cells are found in the brain of all mammalian species and in the periphery, and their biological mediators, including cytokines/chemokines, arachidonic acid products and stored enzymes, play an import role in Alzheimer’s disease. Cytokines/chemokines, which are generated mostly by microglia and astrocytes in Alzheimer’s disease, contribute to nearly every aspect of neuroinflammation and amyloid â-protein plaque aggregates may induce in mast cells the release of a plethora of mediators, including pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, CXCL8 and CCL2-3-4. These proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines are prominent mediators of neuroinflammation in brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, and their inhibition may be associated with improved recovery. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the roles of mast cell mediators (stored and de novo synthesis) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.
inflammation, immunity, mast cell, Alzheimer’s disease
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