Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.4)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MEiN – 140 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2016, vol. 25, nr 3, May-June, p. 575–585

doi: 10.17219/acem/37451

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Impacted Teeth: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Karolina Kaczor-Urbanowicz1,A,B,C,D, Małgorzata Zadurska2,E,F, Ewa Czochrowska2,E,F

1 Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

2 Department of Orthodontics, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland


A tooth normally erupts when half to three-quarters of its final root length has developed. Tooth impaction is usually diagnosed well after this period and is generally asymptomatic. It is principally for this reason that patients seek treatment later than optimal. Tooth impaction is a common problem in daily orthodontic practice and, in most cases, it is recognized by chance in a routine dental examination. Therefore, it is very important that dental practitioners are aware of this condition, since early detection and intervention may help to prevent many harmful complications. The treatment of impacted teeth requires multidisciplinary cooperation between orthodontists, oral surgeons and sometimes periodontists. Orthodontic treatment and surgical exposure of impacted teeth are performed in order to bring the impacted tooth into the line of the arch. The treatment is long, more complicated and challenging. This article presents an overview of the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and complications associated with the management of impacted teeth.

Key words

etiology, impacted teeth, surgical techniques, orthodontic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

References (41)

  1. Becker A: Orthodontic treatment of impacted teeth. Wiley-Blackwell 2012, 3rd ed.
  2. Goel A, Loomba A, Goel P, Sharma N: Interdisciplinary approach to palatally impacted canine. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2010, 1, 53–57.
  3. Chu FCS, Li TKL, Lui VKB, Newsome PRH, Chow RLK, Cheung LK: Prevalence of impacted teeth and associated pathologies – a radiographic study of the Hong Kong Chinese population. Hong Kong Med J 2003, 9, 158–163.
  4. Hattab FN, Rawashdeh MA, Fahmy MS: Impaction status of third molars in Jordanian students. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995, 79, 24–29.
  5. Becker A: Early treatment for impacted maxillary incisors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2002, 121, 586–587.
  6. Dachi SF, Howell FV: A survey of 3874 routine full-mouth radiographs. II. A study of impacted teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1961, 14, 1165–1169.
  7. Grover PS, Lorton L: The incidence of unerupted permanent teeth and related clinical cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1985, 59, 420–425.
  8. Hashemipour MA, Tahmasbi-Arashlow M, Fahimi-Hanzaei F: Incidence of impacted mandibular and maxillary third molars: A radiographic study in a Southeast Iran population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2013, 18, 140–145.
  9. Kaya GS, Aslan M, Ömezli MM, Dayi E: Some morphological features related to mandibular third molar impaction. J Clin Exp Dent 2010, 2, 12–17.
  10. Hugoson A, Kugelberg CF: The prevalence of third molars in a Swedish population. An epidemiological study. Community Dent Health 1988, 5, 121–138.
  11. Aydin U, Yilmaz HH, Yildirim D: Incidence of canine impaction and transmigration in a patient population. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2004, 33, 164–169.
  12. Shapira Y, Kuftinec MM: Early diagnosis and interception of potential maxillary canine impaction. J Am Dent Assoc 1998, 129, 1450–1454.
  13. Gaulis R, Joho JP: Parodonte marginal de canines su-perieures incluses: Evaluation suite a differentes methods d’acces chimrgical et de systeme orthodontique. Rev Mens Suisse Odontostomatol 1978, 88, 1249–1261.
  14. Fournier A, Tourcotte J, Bernard C: Orthodontic considerations in the treatment of maxillary impacted canines. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1982, 81, 236–239.
  15. Jacoby H: The etiology of maxillary canine impactions. Am J Orthod 1983, 84, 125–132.
  16. Ericson S, Kurol J: Early treatment of palatally erupting maxillary canines by extraction of the primary canines. Eur J Orthod 1988, 10, 283–295.
  17. Becker A, Smith P, Behar R: The incidence of anomalous lateral incisors in relation to palatally displaced cuspids. Angle Orthod 1981, 51, 24–29.
  18. Oliver RG, Mannion JE, Robinson JM: Morphology of the maxillary lateral incisor in cases of unilateral impaction of the maxillary canine. Br J Orthod 1989, 16, 9–16.
  19. Mac Phee CG: The incidence of erupted supernumerary teeth in consecutive series of 4000 school children. Br Dent J 1935, 58, 59–60.
  20. Brook AH: Dental anomalies of number, form and size: Their prevalence in British schoolchildren. J Int Assoc Dent Child 1974, 5, 37–53.
  21. Power SM, Short MB: An investigation into the response of palatally displaced canines to the removal of deciduous canines and an assessment of factors contributing to a favourable eruption. Br J Orthod 1993, 20, 215–223.
  22. Peterson LJ: Principles of management of impacted teeth. In Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery. Edited by Peterson LJ, Ellis EIII, Hupp JR, Tucker MR. St Louis: CV Mosby 1988, 223–256.
  23. Ebbert S, Sangiorgio M: Facing the dreaded third molar. Prevention 1991, 43, 108–110.
  24. Peck S, Peck L, Kataja M: The palatally displaced canine as a dental anomaly of genetic origin. Angle Orthod 1994, 64, 249–256.
  25. Bjerklin K, Kurol J, Valentin J: Ectopic eruption of maxillary first permanent molars and association with other tooth and developmental disturbances. Eur J Orthod 1992, 14, 369–375.
  26. Miller BH: The influence of congenitally missing teeth on the eruption of the upper canine. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1963, 13, 497–504.
  27. Bass TB: Observations on the misplaced upper canine tooth. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1967, 18, 25–33.
  28. Baccetti T: A controlled study of associated dental anomalies. Angle Orthod 1998, 68, 267–274.
  29. Brin I, Becker A, Shalhav M: Position of the maxillary permanent canine in relation to anomalous or missing lateral incisors: A population study. Eur J Orthod 1986, 8, 12–16.
  30. Gregg TA, Kinirons MJ: The effect of the position and orientation of unerupted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on eruption and displacement of permanent incisors. Int J PaediatDent 1991, 1, 3–7.
  31. Bourzgui F, Sebbar M, Abidine Z, Bantahar Z: Management of dental impaction in Bourzgui F. Orthodontics – Basic aspects and Clinical Conciserations. InTech 2012, 219–247.
  32. Ericson S, Kurol J: Radiographic examination of ectopically erupting maxillary canines. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1987, 91, 483–492.
  33. Chaushu S, Kaczor-Urbanowicz K, Zadurska M, Becker A: Predisposing factors for severe incisor root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2015, 147, 52–60.
  34. Walker L, Enciso R, Mah J: Three-dimensional localization of maxillary canines with cone-beam computed tomography. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005, 128, 418–423.
  35. Wardford JH Jr, Grandhi RK, Tira DE: Prediction of maxillary canine impaction using sectors and angular measurement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003, 124, 651–655.
  36. Stivaros N, Mandall NA: Radiographic factors affecting the management of impacted upper permanent canines. J Orthod 2000, 27, 169–173.
  37. Clarck CA: A method of ascertaining the relative position of unerupted teeth by means of film radiographs. Proc Roy Soc Med (Sec Odont) 1910, 3, 87–90.
  38. Bonetti GA, Zanarini M, Parenti SI, Marini I, Gatto MR: Preventive treatment of ectopically erupting maxillary permanent canines by extraction of deciduous canines and first molars: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011, 139, 316–323.
  39. Chaushu S, Dykstein N, Ben-Bassat Y, Becker A: Periodontal status of impacted maxillary incisors uncovered by two different surgical techniques. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009, 67, 120–124.
  40. Kokich VG: Surgical and orthodontic management of impacted maxillary canines. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004, 126, 278–283.
  41. Vanarsdall RL, Corn HL: Soft-tissue management of labially positioned unerupted teeth. Am J Orthod 1977, 72, 53–64.