Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.4)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MEiN – 140 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2015, vol. 24, nr 3, May-June, p. 481–485

doi: 10.17219/acem/28112

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

The Nasolabial Angle Among Patients with Total Cleft Lip and Palate

Anna M. Paradowska-Stolarz1,A,B,C,D, Beata Kawala2,E,F

1 Department of Dentofacial Anomalies, Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


Background. . Nasolabial angle is the angle that is measured between points columella, subnasale and labiale superius. The reference values vary from 90 to 120 degrees (the mean value is 109.8 degrees). In some disorders, nasolabial angle might change. This influences the facial profile. One of such deformities are clefts. The nasolabial angle might be decreased in cleft patients due to deformation of the nose and upper lip that might be caused by the reconstructive surgical procedures performed.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to compare the nasolabial angle between the groups of patients with total clefts of the lip, alveolar bone and palate and healthy individuals.
Material and Methods. The cephalometric X-rays of 118 patients with clefts (73 boys and 45 girls) and 101 healthy individuals (32 boys and 69 girls) were taken into account to measure nasolabial angle and compared.
Results. In patients with cleft deformities, the nasolabial angle values were smaller than in healthy individuals. Among the patients with clefts, the ones with a bilateral type of deformity are characterized by the highest mean values of nasolabial angle. The angle is smaller in groups of girls when compared to boys.
Conclusion. Nasolabial angle in patients with total clefts of lip, alveolar bone and palate is statistically smaller than in healthy individuals. This might be a result of either the deformation of the upper lip or (more probably) the nose. The orthodontic treatment should be individualized.

Key words

total cleft, nasolabial angle, cleft lip and palate.

References (21)

  1. Abu-Hussein M: Cleft Lip and Palate – etiological factors. Dent Med Probl 2012, 49, 149–156.
  2. Cudziło D, Matthews-Kozanecka M, Kostrzewa J: The effect of lack of motivation to continue treatment in a patient with cleft lip and palate on long-term results of surgical-orthodontic treatment. Dent Med Probl 2012, 49, 617–622.
  3. Bugaighis I, O’Higgins P, Tiddeman B, Mattick C, Ben Ali O, Hobson R: Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics applied to the study of children with cleft lip and/or palate North East of England. Eur J Orthod 2010, 32, 514–521.
  4. Choi YK, Park SB, Kim YI, Son WS: Three-dimensional evaluation of midfacial asymmetry in patients with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate by cone-beam computed tomography. Korean J Orthod 2013, 43, 113–119.
  5. Rychlik D, Wójcicki P, Koźlik M: Osteoplasty of the alveolar cleft defect. Adv Clin Exp Med 2012, 21, 255-262.
  6. Kim KS, Son WS, Park SB, Kim SS, Kim YI: Relationship between chin deviation and the position and morphology of the mandible in individuals with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. Korean J Orthod 2013, 43, 168–177.
  7. Woźniak K, Teichert H, Piątkowska D, Lipski M: An assessment of relationships between the five-factor personality model and the morphology and function of the stomatognathic system. Adv Clin Exp Med 2012, 21, 5, 637–643.
  8. Vettore MV, Campos AES: Malocclusion characteristics of patients with cleft lip and/or palate. Eur J Orthod 2011, 33, 311–317.
  9. Sikora T, Strzałkowska A: Orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with left-sided cleft lip and palate and a congenitally missing lateral incisor. Dent Med Probl 2013, 50, 96–105.
  10. Swanson LT, MacCollum DW, Richardson SO: Evaluation of the dental problems in the cleft palate patients. Am J Orthod 1956, 42, 749–765.
  11. Garrahy A, Millett D, Ayoub AF: Early assessment of dental arch development in repaired unilateral cleft lip and unilateral cleft lip and palate versus controls. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2005, 42, 385–391.
  12. Antoszewski B, Kruk-Jeromin J, Malinowski A: Odrębności rozwojowe głowy u dzieci z obustronnym rozszczepem wargi, wyrostka zębodołowego i podniebienia. Czas Stomat 1995, 48, 597–600.
  13. Kryściak R, Kozłowski Z, Czernik MR: Gingival smile as a complex problem of aesthetic dentistry. Dent Med Probl 2013, 50, 362–368.
  14. Armijo BS, Brown M, Guyuron B: Defining the ideal nasolabial angle. Plast Reconstr Surg 2012, 129, 758–764.
  15. Anicÿ-Miloševicÿ S, Lapter-Varga M, Šlaj M: Analysis of the soft tissue facial profile by means of angular measurements. Eur J Orthod 2008, 30, 135–140.
  16. Smahel Z, Polivková H, Skvarilová B, Horák I: Configuration of facial profile in adults with cleft lip with or without palate. Acta Chir Plast 1992, 34, 190–203.
  17. Meazzini MC, Giussani G, Morabito A, Semb G, Garattini G, Brusati R: A cephalometric intercenter comparison of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate: analysis at 5 and 10 years of age and long term. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2008, 45, 6, 654–660.
  18. Mars M, Houston WJB: A preliminary study of facial growth and morphology in unoperated male unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects over 13 years of age. Cleft Palate J 1990, 27, 7–10.
  19. Yücel-Eroğlu E, Gulsen A, Uner O: Head posture in cleft lip and palate patients with oronasal fistula and its relationship with craniofacial morphology. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2007, 44, 4, 402–411.
  20. Almeida FM, Neves IS, Pereira TJ, Siqueira VCV: Assessment of the nasolabial angle after orthodontic treatment with and without extraction of the first premolars. Rev Dent Press Ortodon Ortop Facial 2008, 13, 5, 51–58.
  21. Tang ELK, Lisa Y: Prevalence and severity of malocclusion in children with cleft lip and/or palate in Hong Kong. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 1992, 29, 3, 287–291.