Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.7)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MNiSW – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2014, vol. 23, nr 3, May-June, p. 441–446

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Deficiency of Vitamin D and Elevated Aldosterone in Prostate Hyperplasia

Soner Yalçinkaya1,B, Esin Eren2,A,B, Muzaffer Eroglu1,B, Ozgur Aydin3,D,F, Necat Yilmaz3,4,A,C,D,E,F

1 Urology clinic of the antalya Education and Research Hospital of the Ministry of Health, antalya, Turkey

2 Antalya Public Health center of the Ministry of Health, antalya, Turkey

3 Batman Maternity and children’s Hospital, batman, Turkey

4 Central Laboratories of the antalya Education and Research Hospital of the Ministry of Health, antalya, Turkey


Background. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the association between vitamin d deficiency and benign prostate hyperplasia (bPH). Lately, serum calcium and parathyroid hormones were shown to stimulate prostate growth, assuming an interplay between elements of the calcium metabolism rather than a sole role of any. finally, aldosterone actions were found to be affected by vitamin d.
Objectives. We have sufficient reason to believe that human disease, bPH in this case, is a dysfunction of a fine network rather than a failure of a particular substance. Unfortunately, previous studies include results of studies that fall short in combining the overall structure. This study aimed to investigate these four parameters in bPH patients.
Material and Methods. Twenty five patients with bPH (median age 62 years) and 30 volunteer healthy controls (median age 63.5 years) were enrolled. Serum total prostate specific antigen (PSa), intact parathormone (PTH), calcium, 25-hydroxy vitamin d (25-(OH) 2d), aldosterone and lipids were measured.
Results. We found serum aldosterone levels significantly higher in bPH patients (p = 0.04). bPH patients had significantly higher serum PSa levels (p < 0.0001). 25-(OH) 2d levels were lower in the bPH group (p = 0.05). Median serum 25-(OH) 2d levels in both groups were lower than the threshold reference limit (20 ng/mL).
Conclusion. The co-existence of vitamin d deficiency and elevated levels of aldosterone in bPH, presented for the first time in literature, strongly favors a link between the renin-angiotensin system (RaS), vitamin d and bPH pathogenesis. Our findings may influence studies with larger groups of subjects.

Key words

aLdO, aldosterone, bPH, prostate, vitamin d.

References (25)

  1. McVary KT: bPH: epidemiology and comorbidities. am J Manag care 2006, 12, 122–128.
  2. Nandeesha H: benign prostatic hyperplasia: dietary and metabolic risk factors. Int Urol Nephrol 2008, 40, 649–656.
  3. Parsons JK: Lifestyle factors, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and lower urinary tract symptoms, curr Opin Urol 2011, 21, 1–4.
  4. Bauman DR, Steckelbroeck S, Peehl DM, Penning TM: Transcript profiling of the androgen signal in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. Endocrinology 2006, 147, 5806–5816.
  5. Uemura H, Ishiguro H, Ishiguro Y, Hoshino K, Takahashi S, Kubota Y: angiotensin II induces oxidative stress in prostate cancer. Mol cancer Res 2008, 6, 250–258.
  6. Skinner HG, Schwartz GG: The relation of serum parathyroid hormone and serum calcium to serum levels of prostate-specific antigen: a population-based study. cancer Epidemiol biomarkers Prev 2009, 18, 2869–2873.
  7. Rutledge MR, Farah V, Adeboye AA, Seawell MR, Bhattacharya SK, Weber KT: Parathyroid Hormone, a crucial Mediator of Pathologic cardiac Remodeling in aldosteronism. cardiovasc drugs Ther 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
  8. Zhao W, Ahokas RA, Weber KT, Sun Y: aNG II-induced cardiac molecular and cellular events: role of aldosterone. am J Physiol Heart circ Physiol 2006, 291, 336–343.
  9. Vaidya A, Pojoga L, Underwood PC, Forman JP, Hopkins PN, Williams GH, Williams JH: The association of plasma resistin with dietary sodium manipulation, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and 25-hydroxyvitamin d3 in human hypertension. clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2011, 74, 294–299.
  10. Ullah MI, Uwaifo GI, Nicholas WC, Koch CA: does vitamin d deficiency cause hypertension? current evidence from clinical studies and potential mechanisms. Int J Endocrinol 2010, 579640. Epub 2009 Nov 10.
  11. Judd SE, Tangpricha V: Vitamin d deficiency and risk for cardiovascular disease. am J Med Sci 2009, 338, 40–44.
  12. Kota SK, Kota SK, Jammula S, Meher LK, Panda S, Tripathy P, Modi KD: Renin-angiotensin system activity in vitamin d deficient, obese individuals with hypertension: an urban Indian study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2011, 15 Suppl 4, 395–401.
  13. Forman JP, Williams JS, Fisher ND: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d and regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in humans. Hypertension 2010, 55, 1283–1288.
  14. Chopra S, Cherian D, Jacob JJ: The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin d associated hypertension. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2011, 15, Suppl 4, 354–360.
  15. Sigmund CD: Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin d(3): J clin Invest 2002, 110, 155–156.
  16. Kamalov G, Deshmukh PA, Baburyan NY, Gandhi MS, Johnson PL, Ahokas RA, Bhattacharya SK, Sun Y, Gerling IC, Weber KT: coupled calcium and zinc dyshomeostasis and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria of rats with chronic aldosteronism. J cardiovasc Pharmacol 2010, 55, 248–254.
  17. Donkena KV, Young CY: Vitamin d, sunlight and prostate cancer risk. adv Prev Med 2011, 2011, 281863. Epub 2011 Jun 8.
  18. Manchanda PK, Konwar R, Nayak VL, Singh V, Bid HK: association of genetic variants of the vitamin d receptor (VdR) gene (fok-I, Taq-I and bsm-I) with susceptibility of benign prostatic hyperplasia in a North Indian population. asian Pac J cancer Prev 2010, 11, 1005–1008.
  19. Sun Y, Ahokas RA, Bhattacharya SK, Gerling IC, Carbone LD, Weber KT: Oxidative stress in aldosteronism. cardiovasc Res 2006, 15, 71, 300–309.
  20. Calò LA, Pagnin E, Davis PA, Armanini D, Mormino P, Rossi GP, Pessina AC: Oxidative stress-related proteins in a conn’s adenoma tissue. Relevance for aldosterone’s prooxidative and proinflammatory activity. J Endocrinol Invest 2010, 33, 48–53.
  21. Ketola K, Hilvo M, Hyötyläinen T, Vuoristo A, Ruskeepää AL, Orešič M, Kallioniemi O, Iljin K: Salinomycin inhibits prostate cancer growth and migration via induction of oxidative stress. br J cancer 2012, 106, 99–106.
  22. Kim WT, Choi YD, Park C, Kim YW, Yun SJ, Kim IY, Kim WJ: Parathyroid hormone is not involved in prostate growth in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate 2011, 71, 1210–1215.
  23. Chaimuangraj S, Thammachoti R, Ongphiphadhanakul B, Thammavit W: Lack of association of VdR polymorphisms with Thai prostate cancer as compared with benign prostate hyperplasia and controls. asian Pac J cancer Prev 2006, 7.
  24. Lupp A, Klenk C, Röcken C, Evert M, Mawrin C, Schulz S: Immunohistochemical identification of the PTHR1 parathyroid hormone receptor in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Eur J Endocrinol 2010, 162, 979–986.
  25. Schwartz GG, Whitlatch LW, Chen TC, Lokeshwar BL, Holick MF: Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin d3. cancer Epidemiol biomarkers Prev 1998, 7, 391–395.