Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.4)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MEiN – 140 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2014, vol. 23, nr 1, January-February, p. 39–48

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Etiological Factors of Infections in Diabetic Foot Syndrome – Attempt to Define Optimal Empirical Therapy

Rafał Małecki1,A,B,D, Krzysztof Rosiński2,B,D, Rajmund Adamiec1,C,E,F

1 Department of Angiology, Systemic Hypertension and Diabetology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Students’ Scientific Group at the Department of Angiology, Systemic Hypertension and Diabetology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


Background. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) represents one of the most frequent reasons for lower limb amputation in developed countries. In most cases, it is associated with bacterial infection, requiring optimal antibiotic therapy.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent pathogens responsible for infections associated with DFS, establish the optimal protocol of empirical therapy, and ascertain the clinical variables that may determine the choice of the appropriate antibacterial agent.
Material and Methods. The analysis included hospital records of patients treated at the Department between 2008 and 2010. A total of 102 individuals were identified; their material was cultured and tested for antibiotic susceptibility.
Results. A total of 199 bacterial strains were isolated. There was a predominance of Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus coagulase-negative strains, and Enterococcus faecalis. Of note was the high percentage of E. faecalis infection (16.08%). One can speculate on the potential etiological factors in the case of some bacteria, e.g. patients infected with S. aureus were characterized by higher monocytosis and lymphocytosis as compared to other patients. Analysis of drug susceptibility revealed that ciprofloxacin has the highest (but still only 44%) efficacy of all agents tested as monotherapy, and a combination of piperacillin and tazobactam or amoxicillin and clavulanate with aminoglycosides is particularly beneficial.
Conclusion. Staphylococcus spp. predominates amongst the etiological factors of DFS infection; however, the rate of E. faecalis infection is alarmingly high. Monotherapy enables effective treatment in a minority of cases; therefore, at least two-drug protocols should be implemented from the very beginning of the therapy.

Key words

antibiogram-based therapy, antibiotics, diabetic foot syndrome, Enterococcus faecalis.

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