Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.736
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.135
Index Copernicus  – 166.39
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2010, vol. 19, nr 3, May-June, p. 369–378

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Obesity as a Social Disease and the Influence of Environmental Factors on BMI in Own Material

Otyłość jako choroba społeczna i wpływ czynników środowiskowych na wartość BMI w materiale własnym

Razak H. Hady1,, Robert Ł. Zbucki1,, Magdalena E. Łuba1,, Paweł Gołaszewski1,, Robert J. Ładny1,, Jacek W. Dadan1,

1 1st Department of General and Endocrinological Surgery, University Hospital, Białystok, Poland

Abstract

Background. Obesity accounts in contemporary world as serious health issue, and constantly growing percentage of people with excessive body mass entail noticeably higher wide spreading of obesity comorbidities like: hypertension, heart diseases, diabetes and cancers. About the rate of an issue may condemn the fact that in recent two decades the amount of people with excessive body mass had tripled. Furthermore, the amount of bariatric surgeries is increasing, which stays the sole effective method of treatment the pathological obesity. The most influential factor in wide spreading overweight and obesity are exogenic modified factors, among which, bad nutrition habits, highly energetic and improperly combined everyday meals and low physical activity are crucial. Mortality connected with obesity derives from the more frequent occurrence of circulatory system diseases. Objectives,
Material and Methods. The aim of the work was to present the occurrence of overweight and obesity amongst 14540 patients hospitalized in 1st Department of General and Endocrinological Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok during last ten years.
Results. Overweight was diagnosed in 51.8% of women and 52.2% of men and obesity regarded 18.63% of women and 17.6% of men. Wide spreading of morbid obesity was from 1.26% among women and 1.6% among men.
Conclusion. What is more, the influence of particular environmental factors on BMI values had been assigned, taking into consideration age, gender, education level and place of living. It also has been noticed that patients with low level of education as well as those living in cities stored higher proneness to overweight and obesity. The increase in excessive body mass occurrence with age had also been observed particularly in over 50 years olds.

Streszczenie

Wprowadzenie. Otyłość jest poważnym problemem zdrowotnym we współczesnym świecie, a stale powiększający się odsetek ludzi z nadmierną masą ciała pociąga za sobą znacznie większe rozpowszechnienie chorób związanych z otyłością: nadciśnienia, chorób serca, cukrzycy i nowotworów. O skali problemu może świadczyć to, że w ciągu dwóch ostatnich dziesięcioleci liczba ludzi z nadmierną masą ciała potroiła się. Zwiększa się również liczba operacji bariatrycznych, pozostających jedyną skuteczną metodą leczniczą w przypadku otyłości patologicznej. Największe znaczenie w rozwoju nadwagi i otyłości odgrywają modyfikowalne czynniki egzogenne, wśród których główną rolę odgrywają złe nawyki żywieniowe, wysokokaloryczne i nieprawidłowo skomponowane codzienne posiłki i mała aktywność fizyczna. Umieralność związana z otyłością wynika przede wszystkim ze znacznie częstszego występowania chorób układu krążenia. Cel pracy, materiał i metody. Przedstawienie występowania nadwagi i otyłości wśród 14540 pacjentów hospitalizowanych w I Klinice Chirurgii Ogólnej i Endokrynologicznej w ciągu ostatnich 10 lat.
Wyniki. Nadwagę stwierdzono u 51,8% kobiet i 52,2% mężczyzn, otyłość dotyczyła 18,63% kobiet i 17,6% mężczyzn, a rozpowszechnienie otyłości olbrzymiej wynosiło od 1,26% wśród kobiet i 1,6% wśród mężczyzn. Określono również wpływ wybranych czynników środowiskowych na wartości BMI, uwzględniając wiek, płeć, wykształcenie i miejsce zamieszkania.
Wnioski. Stwierdzono, iż pacjenci niewykształceni i mieszkający w miastach mają większą skłonność do nadwagi i otyłości. Zaobserwowano również wzrost występowania nadmiernej masy ciała wraz z wiekiem, szczególnie zaznaczony po 50. r.ż..

Key words

overweight, obesity, epidemiology and environmental factors

Słowa kluczowe

nadwaga, otyłość, epidemiologia, czynniki środowiskowe

References (44)

  1. Sowemimo O, Yood S, Courtney J, Moore J, Huang M, Ross R, McMillian U, Ojo P, Reinhold R: Natural history of morbid obesity without surgical intervention. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2007, 3(1), 73–77.
  2. Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang CH, Westfall AO, Allison DB: Years of Life Lost Due to Obesity. JAMA 2003, 289, 187–193.
  3. Caterson ID, Gill TP: Obesity: epidemiology and possible prevention. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2002, 16(4), 595–610.
  4. Klein S, Allison DB, Heymsfield SB, Kelley DE, Leibel RL, Nonas C, Kahn R: Waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk: a consensus statement from Shaping America’s Health: Association for Weight Management and Obesity Prevention; NAASO, The Obesity Society, the American Society for Nutrition, and the American Diabetes Association. Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 85(5), 1197–1202.
  5. Fird M, Hainer V, Basdevant A, Buchwald H, Deitel M, Finer N, Greve JW, Horber F, Mathus-Vliegen E, Scopinaro N, Steffen R, Tsigos C, Weiner R, Widhalm K: Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Surgery of Severe Obesity. Obesity Facts 2008, 1, 52–59.
  6. Giovambattista A, Piermaria J, Suescun MO, Calandra RS, Gaillard RC, Spinedi E: Direct effect of ghrelin on leptin production by cultured rat white adipocytes. Obesity 2006, 14, 19–27.
  7. Ybarra J, Bobbioni-Harsch E, Chassot G, Huber O, Morel Ph, Assimacopoulos-Jeannet F, Golay A: Persistent Correlation of Ghrelin Plasma Levels with Body Mass Index Both in Stable Weight Conditions and during Gastricbypassinduced Weight Loss. Obes Surg 2009, 19, 327–331.
  8. Szmitko PE, Teoh H, Steawrt DJ, Verma S: Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: state of the art? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007, 292(4), 1655–1663.
  9. Dadan J, Hady Razak H, Zbucki RŁ, Iwacewicz P, Winnicka W, Bossowski A: The activity of gastric ghrelin positive cell in obese patients treated surgically. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2009, 47(2), 307–313.
  10. Sogg S, Mori DL: Psychosocial evaluation for bariatric surgery: The Boston interview and opportunities for intervention. Obes Surg 2009, 19(3), 369–337.
  11. Baptista LS, Ribeiro da Silva K, Gouveia da Pedrosa CS, Claudio-da-Silva C, Carneiro JR, Aniceto M, MelloCoelho V, Takiya ChM, Rossi MI, Borojevic R: Adipose tissue of control and ex-obese patients exhibit differences in blood vessel content and resident mesenchymal stem cell population. Obes Surg 2009, 19, 1304–1312.
  12. Ahima RS, Flier JS: Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2000, 11, 327–332.
  13. Kershaw EE, Flier JS: Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004, 89(6), 2548–2556.
  14. Paśnik K: Surgical treatment of obesity. Military Medical Institute, Warsaw 2004.
  15. WHO Fact sheet N°311 “Obesity and overweight” September 2006.
  16. Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Manson JE, Stevens J, VanItallie TB: Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA 1999, 282, 1530–1538.
  17. Tessier DJ, Eagon JC: Surgical Management of Morbid Obesity. Curr Probl Surg 2008, 45(2), 68–137.
  18. Haslam DW, James WPT: Obesity. Lancet 2005, 366, 1197–1209.
  19. Mackay J, Mensah G: The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. World Health Organization 2004.
  20. Smith SC, Allen J, Blair SN, Bonow RO, Brass LM, Fonarow GC, Grundy SM, Hiratzka L, Jones D, Krumholz HM, Mosca L, Pearson T, Pfeffer MA, Taubert KA: AHA/ACC guidelines for secondary prevention for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2006 update Endorsed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006, 47, 2130–2139.
  21. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE: Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med 1995, 122, 481–486.
  22. WHO European Ministerial Conference on Couteracting Obesity. Diet and physical activity for health. Istambul 15–17.11.2006.
  23. International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome 2005.
  24. Gill JM, Malkova D: Physical activity, fitness and cardiovascular disease risk in adults: interactions with insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Sci 2006, 110, 409–425.
  25. Clinical directives regarding treatment of patients with diabetes 2008. Exp Clin Diabetol 2008, 8, supl. A.
  26. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L: XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 2004, 27, 155–161.
  27. Pannala R, Kidd M, Modlin IM: Surgery for obesity: panacea or pandora’s box? Dig Surg 2006, 23, 1–11.
  28. Stanowski E, Paśnik K: Bariartric surgery – the current state of knowledge. Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques 2008, 3(2), 71–86.
  29. Dadan J, Iwacewicz P, Hady Razak H: New approaches in bariatric surgery. Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques 2008, 3(2), 66–70.
  30. Hady Razak H, Dadan J, Iwacewicz P: Evaluation of the efficiency of chosen methods of surgical treatment of pathological obesity in our own material. Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques 2008, 3(2), 39–44.
  31. Biela U, Pająk A, Kaczmarczyk-Chałas K, Kaczmarczyk-Chałas K, Głuszek J, Tendera M, Waśkiewicz A, Kurjata P, Wyrzykowski B: The occurrence of obesity at women and men between 20 and 74 years old. The results of National Multicentre Health Survery (WOBASZ). Kardiol Pol 2005, 63.6(4).
  32. Zdrojewski T, Bandosz P, Szpakowski P: The dissemination of cardiovascular diseases primary risk factors In Poland. The results of NATPOL PLUS. Kardiol Pol 2004, 61(4), 1–26.
  33. State-Specific Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults – United States 2007, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention 2008, 57(28), 765–768.
  34. State-Specific Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults – United States 2005, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention 2005, 55(36), 985–988.
  35. Chen CM: Owerview of obesity in Mainland China. Obesity Rev 2008, 9 (1), 14–21.
  36. Central Statistical Office (GUS). Health condition of Polish population according to territorial section in 2004. Warsaw 2007.
  37. Hu FB, Li T, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE: Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 2003, 289(14), 1785–1791.
  38. Mc Auley K, Wiliams S, Mann J, Goulding A, Chisholm A, Wilson N, Story G, McLay R, Harper M, Jones L: Intensive lifestyle changes are necessary to improve insulin sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2002, 25, 445–452.
  39. Bravata DM, Smith-Spangler C, Sundaram V, Gienger AL, Lin N, Lewis R, Stave CD, Olkin I, Sirard JR: Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health. A systematic review. JAMA 2007, 298(19), 2296–2304.
  40. Lamberg L: Rx for obesity: eat less, exercise more, and maybe get more sleep. JAMA 2006, 295, 2341–2344.
  41. Barrington DS, Baquero MC, Borell LN, Crawford ND: Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Obesity Among US-born and Foreign-born Adults by Sex and Education. Obesity 2010, 18(2), 422–424.
  42. Adams TD, Gress RE, Smith SC, Halverson RC, Simper SC, Rosamond WD, Lamonte MJ, Stroup AM, Hunt SC: Long-term mortality after gastric bypass surgery. N Engl J Med 2007, 357(8), 753–761.
  43. Sjöstrom L, Narbro K, Sjöstrom CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, Lystig T, Sullivan M, Bouchard C, Carlsonn B, Bengtsson C, Dahlgren S, Gummesson A, Jacobson P, Karlsson J, Lindroos AK, Lönroth H, Naslund I, Olbers T, Stenlöf K, Torgerson J, Agren G, Carlsson LM: Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med 2007, 357(8), 741–752.
  44. Stanowski E, Wyleżoł M: Development of surgical treatment of obesity in the world and in Poland. Post Nauk Med 2009, 22 (1), 498–501.