Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.6)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MNiSW – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2009, vol. 18, nr 6, November-December, p. 641–648

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Filmless Radiology – Digital Radiography Systems

Radiologia bez zdjęć – systemy radiografii cyfrowej

Tomasz Sozański1,, Violetta Sokolska2,, Marek Gomułkiewicz2,, Jan Magdalan1,, Małgorzata Trocha1,, Joanna Bladowska3,, Anna Merwid−Ląd1,

1 Department of Pharmacology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology, and Neuroradiology, Chair of Radiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

3 Department of Radiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


The article presents new digital radiography systems. The principles of digital radiography and differences between traditional and digital radiography units are discussed. Two types of digital radiography systems are compared. The principles of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiological Information System (RIS), and Hospital Information System (HIS) connected with digital radiography are presented. The benefits of digital radiography for hospitals, radiologists, physicians, and patients are discussed.


W pracy przedstawiono nowe systemy radiografii cyfrowej. Omówiono zasady ich działania oraz różnice między systemami cyfrowymi i klasycznymi. Porównano dwa podstawowe rodzaje systemów cyfrowych. Zaprezentowano podstawowe reguły działania systemów, związanych z radiologią cyfrową: systemu archiwizacji obrazów i komunikacji – PACS, radiologicznego systemu informacyjnego – RIS oraz szpitalnego systemu informatycznego – HIS. Opisano korzyści, jakie niesie zastosowanie radiologii cyfrowej dla szpitali, lekarzy i pacjentów.

Key words

digital radiography, PACS, RIS, HIS

Słowa kluczowe

radiografia cyfrowa, PACS, RIS, HIS

References (38)

  1. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Siddiqui K: Evolution of the digital revolution: a radiologist perspective. J Digit Imaging 2003, 16 (4), 324–330.
  2. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Flagle C: Effect of filmless imaging on the utilization of radiology services. Radiology 2000, 215, 163–167.
  3. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Hooper FJ, Siddiqui KM, Musk A, Walker L, Chacko A: Multi−institutional analysis of computed and direct radiography. Part I. Technologist productivity. Radiology 2005, 236, 413–419.
  4. Cowen AR, Kengyelics SM, Davies AG: Solid−state, flat−panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics. Clin Radiol 2008, 63, 487–498.
  5. Chotas HG, Dobbins JT, Ravin CE: Principles of Digital Radiography with Large−Area, Electronically Readable Detectors: A Review of the Basics. Radiology 1999, 210, 595–599.
  6. Floyd CE, Warp, BS, Dobbins JT, Chotas HG, Baydush AH, Vargas−Voracek R, Ravin CE: Imaging characteristics of an amorphous silicon flat−panel detector for digital chest radiography. Radiology 2001, 218, 683–688.
  7. Hendee WR, Brown EF, Stanley RJ: Colliding forces in radiology: technologic imperative, resource limitations, and accountability demands. RadioGraphics 1994, 14, 647–653.
  8. Sachdeva RC: Measuring the impact of new technology: an outcomes−based approach. Crit Care Med 2001, 29 (8), 190–195.
  9. Bhargavan M, Sunshine JH, Schepps B: Too few radiologists? Am J Roentgenol 2002, 178, 1075–1082.
  10. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Hooper FJ: Radiologists’ productivity in the interpretation of CT scans: a comparison of PACS with conventional film. Am J Roentgenol 2002, 176, 861–864.
  11. Reiner BI, Siegel EL: The cutting edge: strategies to enhance radiologist workflow in a filmless/ paperless imaging department. J Digit Imaging 2002, 15, 178–190.
  12. Gay SB, Sobel AH, Young LQ: Processes involved in reading imaging studies: workflow analysis and implications for workstation development. J Digit Imaging 1997, 10, 40–45.
  13. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Protopapas Z: Impact of filmless radiology on the frequency of clinician consultations with radiologists. Am J Roentgenol 1999, 173, 1169–1172.
  14. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Carrino J, McElveny C: SCAR radiologic technologist survey: analysis of technologist workforce and staffing. J Digit Imaging 2002, 15, 121–131.
  15. Radiologic technologists technicians. In: Occupational outlook handbook. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site. http: // 105.htm. Accessed July 10, 2004.
  16. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Bradham D: Establishing benchmarks for creation of a pro forma economic model for a filmless PACS operation. J Digit Imaging 2000, 13, 129–135.
  17. Janower ML: Productivity standards for technologists: how to use them. Radiology 1988, 166, 276–277.
  18. Reiner BI, Siegel EL: Technologists' Productivity When Using PACS: Comparison of Film−Based Versus Filmless Radiography. Am J Roentgenol 2002, 179, 33–37.
  19. Andriole KP: Productivity and cost assessment of CR, DR and screen−film for outpatient chest exams. J Digit Imaging 2002, 15, 161–169.
  20. Kusakabe Y: Financial impact of introducing filmless CRT diagnosis. Nippon 2002, 58(9), 1277–1281.
  21. Braunschweig R, Klose HJ, Neugebauer E, Busch HP: Digital radiography. Results of a survey (part A) and a consensus conference (part B). Eur Radiol 1997, 7 (3), 94–101.
  22. Foos DH, Sehnert WJ, Reiner B, Siegel EL, Segal A, Waldman DL: Digital Radiography Reject Analysis: Data Collection Methodology, Results, and Recommendations from an In−depth Investigation at Two Hospitals. J Digit Imaging 2008 Apr 30 [Epub ahead of print].
  23. Sheung−ling Lau, Suk−han Mak A, Wing−tat Lam, Chi−kwok Chau, Ka−yin Lau: Reject analysis: a comparison of conventional film−screen radiography and computed radiography with PACS. Radiography 2004, 10, 183–187.
  24. Walsh C, Gorman D, Byrne P, Larkin A, Dowling A, Malone JF: Quality assurance of computed and digital radiography systems. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2008, Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
  25. Reiner BI, Salkever D, Siegel EL, Hooper FJ, Siddiqui KM, Musk A: Multi−institutional analysis of computed and direct radiography. Part II. Economic analysis. Radiology 2005, 236, 420–426.
  26. Sack D: Increased productivity of a digital imaging system: one hospital’s experience. Radiol Manage 2001, 23, 14–18.
  27. Siegel EL, Diaconis JN, Pomerantz S: Making filmless radiology work. J Digit Imaging 1995, 8, 151–155.
  28. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Hooper FJ: Impact of filmless imaging on the frequency of clinician review of radiology images. J Digit Imaging 1998, 11, 149–155.
  29. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Scanlon M: Changes in technologist productivity with implementation of an enterprisewide PACS. J Digit Imaging 2002, 15, 22–26.
  30. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Carrino JA: SCAR radiologic technologist survey: analysis of the impact of digital technologies on productivity. J Digit Imaging 2002, 15, 132–140.
  31. Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Hooper FJ: Accuracy of interpretation of CT scans: comparing PACS monitor displays and hard−copy images. Am J Roentgenol 2002, 179, 1407–1410.
  32. Pomerantz SM, White CS, Krebs TL: Liver and bone window settings for soft−copy interpretation of chest and abdominal CT. Am J Roentgenol 2000, 174, 311–314.
  33. Christian ME, Davidsonl HC, Wiggins RH 3rd, Berges G, Cannon G, Jackson G, Chapman B, Harnsberger HR: Digital processing of radiographic images from PACS to publishing. J Digit Imaging 2002, 14 (1), 14–17.
  34. Persliden J, Beckman KW, Geijer H, Andersson T: Dose−image optimisation in digital radiology with a direct digital detector: an example applied to pelvic examinations. Eur Radiol 2002, 12, 1584–1588.
  35. Strotzer M, Gmeinwasser J, Volk M, Frund R, Seitz J, Manke C, Albrich H, Feuerbach S: Clinical application of a flat−panel Xray detector based on amorphous silicon technology: image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction in skeletal radiography. Am J Roentgenol 1998, 171, 23–27.
  36. Gavala S, Donta C, Tsiklakis K, Boziari A, Kamenopoulou V, Stamatakis HC: Radiation dose reduction in direct digital panoramic radiography. Eur J Radiol 2008 Apr 29 [Epub ahead of print].
  37. Aldrich JE, Duran E, Duynlop P, Mayo JR: Optimization of dose and image quality for computed radiography and digital radiography. J Digit Imaging 2006, 19 (2), 126–131.
  38. Compagnone G, Pagan L, Baleni MC, Calzolaio FL, Barozzi L, Bergamini C: Patient dose in digital projection radiography. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2008 Feb 5 [Epub ahead of print].