Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
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ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2008, vol. 17, nr 1, January-February, p. 91–99

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Adenoviral Infection – Pathomechanism and Diagnostics

Infekcje adenowirusowe – patomechanizm i diagnostyka

Iwona Bil1,, Blanka Rybka2,, Mieczysław Woźniak1,

1 Chair and Department of Clinical Chemistry, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, Poland

2 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, Poland

Abstract

Adenoviruses (AdVs) are among the main etiological infectious factors that affect immunocompromised patients. They are not potentially dangerous to healthy children, but are a very serious risk for bone marrow and organ recipients. There are about 51 different serotypes of human adenoviruses known so far. They occur generally in the throat and feces of healthy people. They can be latent in adenoid tissue and kidney, so they can induce disease after many years because of infection reactivation. Adenoviruses are responsible for many disorders. They cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracks, alimentary system and urinary track, diseases of the joints, myocarditis, pericarditis and, more rarely, disorders of the central nervous system. Because of the large number of AdV serotypes, their genomic variations, and their susceptibility to mutation, they present a lot of difficulty in laboratory diagnostics. However, advances in current knowledge create opportunities to introduce new methods to quantify adenoviral infections and monitor therapy efficacy. This article presents current knowledge about adenoviruses and their pathogenicity and information about available methods to diagnose adenoviral infections.

Streszczenie

Adenowirusy są jednym z głównych czynników etiologicznych zakażeń u pacjentów z osłabioną odpornością. Potencjalnie niegroźne dla subiektywnie zdrowych dzieci stają się poważnym zagrożeniem dla biorców transplantacyjnych szpiku kostnego i biorców narządowych. Do tej pory zidentyfikowano 51 serotypów ludzkich adenowirusów. Występują powszechnie w gardle i kale ludzi zdrowych. Dzięki zdolności do latencji w obrębie tkanki adenoidalnej i w nerce mogą wywoływać choroby na skutek reaktywacji zakażenia nawet po wielu latach. AdV są odpowiedzialne za zakażenia układu oddechowego i pokarmowego, jak również zakażenia dróg moczowych, choroby stawów, zapalenie mięśnia sercowego i osierdzia, rzadziej choroby obwodowego układu nerwowego. Duża liczebność grupy ludzkich adenowirusów, duża zmienność genomowa oraz skłonność do mutacji stwarzają liczne trudności w rutynowej diagnostyce laboratoryjnej. Niemniej jednak postęp we współczesnej nauce sprzyja wprowadzaniu nowych metod służących do wykrywania i monitorowania przebiegu infekcji adenowirusowych. W artykule przedstawiono obecny stan wiedzy na temat etiologii, patomechanizmu oraz dostępnych metod diagnostycznych w zakażeniach adenowirusowych.

Key words

Adenoviridae, infection, pathogenesis, immunosuppression, diagnosis

Słowa kluczowe

Adenoviridae, zakażenie, chorobotwórczość, immunosupresja, diagnostyka

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