Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.727
Index Copernicus  – 166.39
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2006, vol. 15, nr 6, November-December, p. 1055–1062

Publication type: review article

Language: English

The Influence of Nutrients on Immune System Functioning – Part I. Immunomodulatory Effects of Fatty Acids on the Human Body

Wpływ składników odżywczych pożywienia na funkcjonowanie układu odpornościowego – część I. Immunomodulacyjne działanie kwasów tłuszczowych pożywienia w organizmie człowieka

Monika Krzysik1,, Jadwiga Biernat1,, Halina Grajeta1,

1 Chair and Department of Bromatology, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine, Wrocław, Poland

Abstract

Nutritional means and nutritional status of the body have, except many others factors, substantial influence on immune system activity. Nutrients with immunological component are: n−3 and n−6 fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins: A, D, E, C and zinc, selenium and iron. It is considered that n−6 fatty acids induce inflammation through influence on lipid inflammatory mediators. The opposite influence is exerted by n−3 fatty acids, as they stop the production of lipid and protein inflammatory mediators. Modifying the immune response by adequately balanced diet, may be an effective method, not only in prevention but also in treatment of immunological diseases.

Streszczenie

Sposób żywienia i stan odżywienia organizmu ma ważny wpływ, oprócz wielu innych czynników, na aktywność układu immunologicznego. Składniki pokarmowe obdarzone komponentą immunologiczną to: kwasy tłuszczowe z rodziny n−3 i n−6, karotenoidy, witaminy A, D, E, C oraz cynk, selen i żelazo. Uważa się, że kwasy tłuszczowe rodziny n−6, mające wpływ na metabolizm lipidowych mediatorów zapalenia działają prozapalnie. Przeciwny wpływ wywierają kwasy tłuszczowe rodziny n−3, ponieważ blokują syntezę zarówno lipidowych, jak i peptydowych mediatorów reakcji zapalnej. Ukierunkowanie odpowiedzi immunologicznej za pomocą odpowiednio skomponowanej diety może okazać się skuteczną metodą nie tylko zapobiegania, ale także wspomagania leczenia chorób o podłożu immunologicznym.

Key words

fatty acids n−3 and n−6, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, prostaglandins, leucotrienes

Słowa kluczowe

kwasy tłuszczowe n−3 i n−6, limfocyty, makrofagi, neutrofile, cytokiny, prostaglandyny, leukotrieny

References (24)

  1. Field CJ, Johnson IR, Schley PD: Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection. J Leuk Biol 2002, 71, 16–32.
  2. Miles EA, Calder PC: Modulation of immune function by dietary fatty acids. Proc Nutr Soc 1998, 57, 277–292.
  3. Calder PC, Yaqoob P, Thies F, Wallace FA, Miles EA: Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. Br J Nutr 2002, 87, 31–48S.
  4. Grimm H, Mayer K, Mayser P, Eigenbrodt E: Regulatory potential of n−3 fatty acids in immunological and inflammatory processes. Br J Nutr 2002, 87, 59–67S.
  5. Gawęcki L, Hryniewiecki L, Ziemlański Ś: Gospodarka lipidowa w organizmie. Żywienie człowieka. Podstawy nauki o żywieniu. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2000, 2 ed., 162–163.
  6. Hughes A: In vitro and in vivo effects of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human monocyte function. Proc Nutr Soc 1998, 57, 521–525.
  7. Grimble RF: Dietary lipids and inflammatory response. Proc Nutr Soc 1998, 57, 535 – 542.
  8. Caughey CE, Mantzioris E, Gibson RA, Clecard LG, James MJ: The effect on human tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β production of diets enriched in n−3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 1996, 63, 116–122.
  9. Calder PC: Dietary fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. Proc Nutr Soc 1998, 57, 487–502.
  10. Kelley DS, Branch LB, Iacono JM: Nutritional modulation of human immune status. Nutr Res 1989, 9, 965–975.
  11. Yaqoob P: Monounsaturated fats and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc 1998, 57, 511–520.
  12. Berger A, German JB, Chiang BL, Ansari AA, Keen CL, Flechter MP, Gershwin ME: Influence of feeding unsaturated fats on growth and immune status of mice. J Nutr 1993, 123, 225–233.
  13. Yaqoob P, Pala HS, Cortina−Borja M, Newsholme EA, Calder PC: Encapsulated fish oil enriched in α−tocopherol alters plasma phospholipids and mononuclear cell fatty compositions but not mononuclear cell functions. Eur J Clin Invest 2000, 30, 260–274.
  14. Kelley DS, Branch LB, Love JE, Taylor PC, Rivera YM, Iacono JM: Dietary alpha−linolenic acid and immunocompetence in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991, 53, 40–46.
  15. Cook ME, Pariza M: The role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in health. Int Dairy J 1998, 8, 459–462.
  16. Szponar L, Respondek W: Żywienie a aktywność układu immunologicznego. Żywność żywienie a zdrowie 1999, 1, 56–76.
  17. Connor WE: Importance of n−3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 71, 171S–175S.
  18. Meydani SN, Endres S, Woods MM, Goldin BR, Soo C, Morrill−Labrode A, Dinarello C, Gorbach SL: Oral (n−3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: comparison between young and older women. J Nutr 1991, 121, 547–555.
  19. Virella G, Fourspring K, Hyman B, Haskill−Stroud R, Long L, Virella I, La Via M, Gross AJ, Lopes−Virella M: Immunosuppressive effects of fish oil in normal human volunteers: correlation with the in vitro effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on human lymphocytes. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1991, 61, 161–176.
  20. Wu D, Meydani SN: n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc 1998, 57, 503–509.
  21. Kremer JM: n−3 Fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 71, 1, 349S–351S.
  22. Enders S, Meydani SN, Ghorbari R, Schindler R, Dinarello CA: Dietary n−3 fatty acids suppress interleukin 2 production and mononuclear cell proliferation. J Leukoc Biol 1993, 54, 599–603.
  23. Kliewer SA, Sundseth SS, Jones SA, Brown PJ, Wisely GB, Koble CS, Devchand P, Wahli W, Willson TM, Lenhard JM, Lehmann JM: Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferators−activated receptors α and γ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997, 94, 4318–4323.
  24. Wolfrum Ch, Bormann CM, Bőrchers, Spener F: Fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs regulate peroxisome proliferator−activated receptors α− and γ−mediated gene expression via liver fatty acid binding protein: A signaling path to the nucleus. PNAS 2001, 98, 2323–2328.