Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2019, vol. 28, nr 11, November, p. 1577–1585
Publication type: review article
Dietary support in insulin resistance: An overview of current scientific reports
1 Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Over the past 30 years, a significant increase in the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) has been observed. It is associated with more frequent occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, excessive weight, cardiovascular diseases, and endocrine disorders. The results of current studies do not indicate a necessity to exclude dairy products from the diet of insulin-resistant individuals. In addition, it has been found that moderate amounts of alcohol as part of a balanced, low-energy diet do not have a negative effect on insulin sensitivity. The authors of recent studies emphasize the importance of reducing the intake of simple sugars, especially from sweet drinks, sweets and excessive fruit juice consuption. Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of consuming complex, low-glycemic-index carbohydrates that are rich in dietary fiber. An insulin-resistant patient’s diet should be rich in whole grains and high amounts of non-starchy vegetables and raw fruit. The beneficial effect of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet) and the Mediterranean diet has been confirmed. The positive correlation between low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets requires confirmation in long-term studies with the participation of insulin-resistant patients. Research shows the benefits of increased calorific intake during the first half of the day, especially from a high-energy and low-glycemic-index breakfast. Furthermore, many researchers indicate that slow and mindful eating is a significant component of an appropriate diet for insulin-resistant individuals.
insulin resistance, diet, glycemic index
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