Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2018, vol. 27, nr 1, January, p. 149–154
Publication type: review article
Post-ERCP pancreatitis: Pathophysiology, early identification and risk stratification
1 Clinical Surgery University of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
2 Department of General Surgery, Worthing Hospital, England, United Kingdom
3 Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire, Scotland, United Kingdom
Acute pancreatitis is the most common and feared complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The aim of the study was to review the current knowledge on the nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, and risk stratification of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). A structured search in PubMed and Scopus databases was performed using search terms related to the subject of diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification of post-ERCP pancreatitis, including full text articles and abstracts in the English language. Several causes, operating both at a local and systemic level, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEP. Different patient-related risk factors can help predict post-ERCP pancreatitis; diagnosis depends on clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory investigations. As an outpatient procedure, post-ERCP pancreatitis may be safe in a selected group of low-risk patients. Further investigation of the etio-pathogenesis of post-ERCP pancreatitis is required in order to improve diagnosis and treatment. Early identification and severity stratification of post-ERCP pancreatitis greatly affects the patient's outcome. There is still controversy concerning the risk factors related to PEP. More studies are needed to clarify early and definite diagnosis, risk and severity stratification, as well as treatment of post-ERCP pancreatitis.
pancreatitis, ERCP, risk score, post-ERCP pancreatitis
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