Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.736
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.135
Index Copernicus  – 168.52
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2016, vol. 25, nr 4, July-August, p. 799–807

doi: 10.17219/acem/32488

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Photodynamic Therapy As a Promising Method Used in the Treatment of Oral Diseases

Ewa J. Prażmo1,A,B,C,D, Mirosław Kwaśny2,D,E, Mariusz Łapiński2,B, Agnieszka Mielczarek1,C,E,F

1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland

2 Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Warszawa, Poland

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of three elements: photosensitizer, light and oxygen. The photosensitizer has the property of selective accumulation in abnormal or infected tissues without causing any damage to the healthy cells. This innovative therapeutic method has already been successfully adapted in many fields of medicine, e.g. dermatology, gynecology, urology and cancer therapy. Dentistry is also beginning to incorporate photodisinfection for treatment of the oral cavity. The antibacterial and fungicidal properties of the photosensitizer have been used to achieve better results in root canal treatment, periodontal therapy and the eradication of candidiasis in prosthodontics. The aim of this article is to discuss the effectiveness of photodynamic methods in the diagnosis and therapy of selected oral diseases. Scientific data and published papers regarding the antibacterial properties of PDT will be subjected to analysis. Photodynamic therapy will be discussed as an alternative treatment protocol in oncology, endodontics, periodontology and other fields of dentistry.

Key words

photodynamic therapy, PDT, photosensitizer, antibacterial therapy

References (77)

  1. Dougherty TJ, Gomer CJ, Henderson BW, Jori G, Kessel D, Korbelik D, Moan J, Peng Q: Review photodynamic therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998, 90, 889–905.
  2. Kwasny M: Light sources and diagnostic systems currently used in photodynamic therapy. Optica Applicata 2002, 32, 673–684.
  3. Nowis D, Makowski M, Stoklosa T, Legat M, Issat T, Gołąb T: Direct tumor damage mechanisms of photodynamic therapy. Acta Biochim Pol 2005, 52, 339–352.
  4. Dolmans EJGJD, Fukumura D, Jain KR: Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2003, 3, 380–387.
  5. Konopka K, Goslinski T: Photodynamic therapy in dentistry. J Dent Res 2007, 86, 694–707.
  6. Tromberg BJ, Orenstein A, Kimel S, Barker SJ, Hyatt J, Nelson JS, Berns MW: In vivo tumor oxygen tension measurements for the evaluation of the efficiency of photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol 1990, 52, 75–85.
  7. Huang Z: A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat 2005, 4, 283–293.
  8. Brancaleon L, Moseley H: Laser and non-laser light sources for photodynamic therapy. Lasers Med Sci 2002, 17, 2002, 173–186.
  9. Peloi LS, Soares RSS, Biondo CEG, Souza VR, Hioka N, Kimura E: Photodynamic effect of light-emitting diode light on cell growth inhibition induced by methylene blue. J Biosci 2008, 33, 231–237.
  10. Goslinski T, Konopka K, Piskorz J, Kryjewski M, Wierzchowski M, Sobiak S: Prospects for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy – PACT. Post Microbiol 2008, 47, 447–456.
  11. Dave D, Desai U, Despande N: Photodynamic therapy: A view thought light, J Orofac Res 2012, 2, 82–86.
  12. Allison RR, Downie GH, Cuenca R, Xin-Hua Hu, Childs CJH, Sibata CH: Photosensitizers in clinical PDT. Photodiag Photodyn Ther 2004, 1, 27–42.
  13. Moser JG: Definitions and general properties of 2nd & 3rd generation photosensitizers. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam 1998, 3–8.
  14. Staneloudi C, Smith KA, Hudson R, Malatesti N, Savoie H, Boyle RW: Development and characterization of novel photosensitiser: scFv conjugates for use in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Immunology 2007, 120, 512–517.
  15. Konan YN, Gurny R, Alléman E: State of the art in the delivery of photosensitisers for photodynamic therapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 2002, 66, 89–106.
  16. Josefsen LB, Boyle RW: Photodynamic therapy: Novel third-generation photosensitizers one step closer? Br J Pharmacol 2008, 1, 1–3.
  17. Salva KA: Photodynamic therapy: Unapproved uses, dosages, or indications. Clin Dermatol 2002, 20, 571–581.
  18. Allison RR, Bagno VC, Cuenca R, Downie GH, Sibata CH: The future of photodynamic therapy in oncology. Future Oncol 2006, 2, 53–71.
  19. Usacheva MN, Teichert MC, Biel MA: Comparison of the methylene blue and toluidine blue photobactericidal efficacy against grampositive and gramnegative microorganism. Lasers Surg Med 2001, 29, 165–173.
  20. Donelly RF, McCarron PA, Tunney MM: Antifungal photodynamic therapy. Microbiol Res 2008, 163, 1–12.
  21. Mohr H, Lambrecht B, Selz A: Photodynamic virus inactivation of blood components. Immunol Invest 1995, 24, 73–85.
  22. Kassab K, Amor BT, Jori G, Coppellotti O: Photosensitization of Colpoda inflate cysts by meso-substituted catonic porphyrins. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2002, 1, 560–564.
  23. Kharkwal GB, Sharma SK, Ying-Ying H, Dai T, Hamblin MR: Photodynamic therapy for infections: Clinical applications. Lasers Surg Med 2011, 43, 755–767.
  24. Pagonis TC, Chen J, Fontana CR, Devalapally H, Ruggiero K, Song X, Foschi F, Dunham J, Skobe Z, Yamazaki H, Kent R, Tanner ACR, Amiji MM, Soukos NS: Nanopartice-based endodontic antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. J Endod 2010, 36, 322.
  25. Massano J, Ragateiro FS, Januario G, Ferreira A: Oral squamous cell carcinoma: review of prognostic and predictive factors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006, 102, 67–76.
  26. Dilkes MG, Benjamin E, Ovaisi S, Banerjee AS: Treatment of primary mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using photodynamic therapy: Results after 25 treated cases. J Laryngol Otol 2003, 117, 713–717.
  27. Dilkes MG, DeJode ML, Gardiner Q, Kenyon GS, McKelvie P: Treatment of head and neck cancer with photodynamic therapy: Results after one year. J Laryngol Otol 1995, 109, 10721076.
  28. Dilkes MG, DeJode ML, Rowntree-Taylor A, McGilligan JA, Kenyon GS, McKelvie P: m-THPC Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer. Lasers Med Sci 1996, 11, 23–29.
  29. Agostinis P, Berg K, Cengel KA, Foster TH, Girotti AW, Gollnick SO, Hahn SM, Hamblin MR, Juzeniene A, Kessel D, Korbelik M, Moan J, Mroz P, Nowis D, Piette J, Wilson BC, Golab J: Photodynamic therapy of cancer: An update. CA Cancer J Clin 2011, 61, 250–281.
  30. Biel M: Advances in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of head and neck cancers. Lasers Surg Med 2006, 38, 349–355.
  31. Mang TS, Sullivan M, Cooper M, Loree T, Rigual N: The use of photodynamic therapy using 630 nm laser light and porfimer sodium for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2006, 3, 272–275.
  32. Hopper C, Niziol C, Sidhu M: The cost-effectiveness of Foscan mediated photodynamic therapy (Foscan-PDT) compared with palliative chemotherapy, extensive palliative surgery or ‘no treatment’ for patients with advanced head and neck cancer in the UK. Oral Oncol 2004, 40, 372–382.
  33. Chen HM, Chen Ch, Yang H, Yen-Ping Kuo M, Kuo YS, Lan WH, Wang YP, Tsai T, Chiang CP: Successful treatment of oral verrucous hyperplasia with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy. Oral Oncol 2004, 40, 630–637.
  34. Dabrowski Z, Kwasny M, Kaminski J, Beldowicz M, Lewicka L, Obukowicz B, Kaliszewski M, Pirozynska E: The syntesis and application of 5- aminolevulinic acid (ALA) derivatives in photodynamic therapy and photodiagnosis. Acta Pol Pharm 2003, 60, 219–224.
  35. Donnelly RF, McCarron PA, Woolfson AD: Derivatives of 5-Aminolevulinic acid for photodynamic therapy. Perspect Medicin Chem 2007, 1, 49–63.
  36. Wachowska M, Muchowicz A, Firczuk M, Gabrysiak M, Winiarska M, Wańczyk M, Bojarczuk K, Golab J: Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) as a prodrug in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Molecules 2011, 16, 4140–4164.
  37. Ackroyd R, Brown N, Vernon D, Roberts D, Stephenson T, Marcus S, Stoddard C, Reed M: 5-Aminolevulinic acid photosensitization of dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus: A pharmacokinetic study. J Photochem Photobiol 1999, 4, 656–662.
  38. Weiss TS, Pahernik S, Scheruebl I, Jauch KW, Thasler WE: Cellular damage to human hepatocytes through repeated application of 5-aminolevulinic acid. J Hepatol 2003, 4, 476–482.
  39. Kübler AC: Photodynamic therapy, Medical Laser Application 2005, 20, 37–45.
  40. Sieron A, Adamek M, Kawczyk-Krupka A, Mazur S, Ilewicz L: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topically applied δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for the treatment of oral leukoplakia. J Oral Pathol Med 2003, 32, 330–336.
  41. Kübler AC, Haase T, Rheinwald M, Barth T, Muhling J: Treatment of oral leukoplakia by topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998, 27, 466–469.
  42. Jurczyszyn K, Czapińska E, Gamian E, Hotowy K, Terlecki G, Symonowicz K, Osiecka B, Bronowicz A, Ziółkowski P: Matrix metalloproteinase-3 induction following photodynamic therapy with liposomal formulations of aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester. Acta Bio-Optica Inform Med Eng 2010, 16, 182–186.
  43. Osiecka B, Jurczyszyn K, Symonowicz K, Bronowicz A, Ostasiewicz P, Czapińska E, Hotowy K, Krzystek-Korpacka M, Gebarowska E, Izykowska I, Dziegiel P, Terlecki G, Ziółkowski P: In vitro and in vivo matrix metalloproteinase expression after photodynamic therapy with a liposomal formulation of aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester. Cell Mol Biol Lett 2010, 15, 630–650.
  44. Drisco CH: Non-surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontology 2000, 25, 77–88.
  45. Morrison EC, Ramfjord SP, Hill RW: Short-therm effects of initial nonsurgical periodontal treatment (hygienic phase). J Clin Periodontol 2007, 7, 199–211.
  46. Andersen R, Loebel N, Hammond D: Treatment of periodontal disease by photodisinfection compared to scaling and root planing. J Clin Dent 2007, 18, 34–38.
  47. Carvalho AS, Napimoga MH, Coelho-Campos J, Silva-Filho VJ, Thedei G: Photodynamic therapy reduces bone resorption and decreases inflammatory response in an experimental rat periodontal model. Photomed Laser Surg 2011, 29, 735–740.
  48. Christodoulides N, Nikolidakis D, Chondros P, Becker J, Schwarz F, Rössler R, Sculean A: Photodynamic therapy as adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol 2008, 79, 1638–1644.
  49. De Oliveira RR, Schwartz-Filho HO, Novaes AB Jr, Taba M Jr: Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy in the nonsurgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis: A preliminary randomized controlled clinical study. J Periodontol 2007, 78, 965–973.
  50. Kömerik N, Nakanishi H, MacRobert AJ, Henderson B, Speight P, Wilson M: In vivo killing of porphyromonas gingivalis by toluidine blue-mediated photosensitization in an animal model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003, 47, 932–940.
  51. Qin YL, Luan XL, Bi LJ, Sheng YQ, Zhou CN, Zhang ZG: Comparison of toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy and conventional scaling treatment for periodontitis in rats. J Periodont Res 2008, 2, 162–167.
  52. Braham P, Herron C, Street C, Darveau R: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy may promote periodontal healing through multiple mechanisms. J Periodontol 2009, 11, 1790–1798.
  53. Bhatti M, Macrobert A, Meghji S, Henderson B, Wilson M: Effect of dosimetric and physiological factors on the lethal photosensitization of Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Photochem Photobiol 1997, 65, 1026–1031.
  54. Lulic M, Leiggener GI, Salvi GE, Ramseier CA, Mattheos N, Lang NP: One-year outcomes of repeated adjunctive photodynamic therapy during periodontal maintenance: a proof-of-principle randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol 2009, 36, 661–666.
  55. Chondros P, Nikolidakis D, Christodoulides N, Rössler R, Gutknecht N, Sculean A: Photodynamic therapy as adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment in patients on periodontal maintenance: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Lasers Med Sci 2009, 24, 681–688.
  56. Fimple JL, Fontana CR, Foschi F, Ruggiero K, Song X, Pagonis TC, Tanner ACR, Kent R, Doukas AG, Stashenko PP, Soukos NS: Photodynamic treatment of endodontic polymicrobial infection in vitro. J Endod 2008, 34, 728–734.
  57. Siqueira JF Jr, Rôças IN, Paiva SS, Magalhães KM, Guimarães-Pinto T: Cultivable bacteria in infected root canals as identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2007, 22, 266–271.
  58. Sjorgen U, Figdor D, Persson S, Sundqvist G: Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Int Endodontic J 1997, 30, 297–306.
  59. Garcez AS, Nunez SC, Hamblin MR, Ribeiro MS: Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy on patients with necrotic pulps and periapical lesions. J Endod 2008, 34, 138–142.
  60. Raymond N, Singh F, Papamanou DA, Xiaoqing S, Patel C, Holewa C, Patel N, Klepac-Ceraj V, Fontana CR, Kent R, Pagonis TC, Stashenko PP, Soukos NS: Endodontic photodynamic therapy ex vivo. J Endod 2011, 37, 217–222.
  61. Bonsor SJ, Nichol R, Reid TMS, Pearson GJ: Microbal evaluation of photo-activated disinfection in endodontics (an in vivo study). Br Dent J 2006, 200, 337–341.
  62. Bonsor SJ, Nichol R, Reid TMS, Pearson GJ: An alternative regimen for root canal disinfection. Br Dent J 2006, 201, 101–105.
  63. Pinheiro SL, Schenka AA, Neto AA, de Souza CP, Rodriquez HM, Ribeiro MC: Photodynamic therapy in endodontic treatment of deciduous teeth. Lasers Med Sci 2009, 24, 521–525.
  64. Lee MT, Bird PS, Walsh LJ: Photo-activated disinfection of root canals: A new role for lasers in endodontics. Aust Endod J 2004, 30, 93–98.
  65. Distel JW, Hatton JF, Gillespie MJ, Biofilm formation in medicated root canals. J Endod 2002, 28, 689–693.
  66. Siddiqui SH, Awan KH, Javed F: Bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals: A systematic literature review. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2013, 10, 632–643.
  67. Rios A, He J, Glickman GN, Spears R, Schneiderman ED, Honeyman AL: Evaluation of photodynamic therapy using a light-emitting diode lamp against Enterococcus faecalis in extracted human teeth. J Endod 2011, 37, 856–859.
  68. Garcez AS, Núñez SC, Lage-Marques JL, Jorge AOC, Ribeiro MS: Efficiency of NaOCl and laser-assisted photosensitization on the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006, 102, 93–98.
  69. Souza LC, Brito PR, de Oliveira JC, Alves FR, Moreira EJ, Sampaio-Filho HR, Rôças IN, Siqueira JF Jr: Photodynamic therapy with two different photosensitizers as a supplement to instrumentation/irrigation procedures in promoting intracanal reduction of Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod 2010, 36, 292–296.
  70. Arendorf TM, Walker DM: Denture stomatitis: A review. J Oral Rehabil 1987, 14, 217–227.
  71. Newton AV: Denture sore mouth. A possible etiology. Br Dent J 1962, 112, 357–360.
  72. Teichert MC, Jones JW, Usacheva MN, Biel MA: Treatment of oral candidiasis with methylene blue-mediated photodynamic therapy in an immunodeficient murine model. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002, 93, 155–160.
  73. De Oliveira Mima EG, Pavarina AC, Dovigo LN, Vergani CE, de Souza Costa CA, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS: Susceptibility of Candida albicans to photodynamic therapy in a murine model of oral candidosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010, 109, 392–401.
  74. Da Silva Martins J, Junqueira JC, Faria RL, Santiago NF, Rossoni RD, Colombo CED, Jorge AOC: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in rat experimental candidiasis: Evaluation of pathogenicity factors of Candida albicans. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011, 111, 71–77.
  75. Giroldo LM, Felipe MP, de Oliveira MA, Munin E, Alves PL, Costa MS: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with methylene blue increases membrane permeability in Candida albicans. Lasers Med Sci 2009, 24, 109–112.
  76. Mima EG, Pavarina AC, Silva MM, Ribeiro DG, Vergani CE, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS: Denture stomatitis treated with photodynamic therapy: Five cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011, 112, 602–608.
  77. Mima EG, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Massucato EMS, Colombo AL, Bagnato VS, Pavarina AC: Comparison of Photodynamic Therapy versus conventional antifungal therapy for the treatment of denture stomatitis: A randomized clinical trial. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012, 18, 380–388.