Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2016, vol. 25, nr 2, March-April, p. 383–390
Publication type: review article
The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Oral Diseases
1 Students’ Scientific Group “Stomatological Biochemistry”, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
3 Institute of Health Care, Higher Vocational School, Suwałki, Poland
4 Specialist Dental Practice, Białystok, Poland
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) belong to a family of structurally related zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that are known to play a key role in the catabolic turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Research studies to date have indicated that MMPs regulate the activity of several non-ECM bioactive substrates, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and cell receptors, which determine the tissue microenvironment. Disruption of the balance between the concentration of active matalloproteinases and their inhibitors (TIMPs) may lead to pathological changes associated with uncontrolled ECM turnover, tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, cell growth and migration. This brief review presents some information on MMPs’ role in inflammatory, metabolic and cancer abnormalities related to the salivary glands, as well as MMP-related aspects that lead to the formation of human dentinal caries lesions. In oral diseases, the most relevant biological fluid commonly used for diagnosing periodontal diseases is saliva. In diseased patients with significantly higher levels of MMPs in their saliva than healthy people, most extracellular matrix components undergo digestion to lower molecular weight forms. Conventional treatment successfully reduces the levels of MMPs inhibits the progressive breakdown of gingival and periodontal ligament collagens. Beside inflammatory abnormalities like Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), a large group of disorders is comprised of cancers, most of them involving the parotid gland.
dental caries, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, salivary glands, oral diseases
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