Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2016, vol. 25, nr 2, March-April, p. 243–248
Publication type: original article
The Distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Patients with Alcoholic Disease: A Pilot Study
1 Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Background. Both drinking and periodontal disease are serious health and social problems. Findings on the effect of alcohol consumption on periodontal disease are inconclusive.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with alcoholic disease, the composition of the main periopathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 25 alcoholics from the Department of Alcohol Addiction Closed Treatment and 25 non-alcoholic patients from the Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained from the 4 deepest sites (≥ 4 mm). The presence of 4 bacterial taxa was analysed using the PCR technique.
Results. The prevalence of bacterial species was significantly different between groups. Alcoholics showed significantly higher mean DNA counts for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola. In the qualitative analysis, no difference was observed between the groups. The study showed no statistically significant association between the amount of alcohol consumed and the composition of subgingival flora in patients suffering from alcoholism.
Conclusion. Alcoholics demonstrated the presence of pathogenic bacteria in similar amounts to people diagnosed with chronic periodontal disease, but showed significantly higher mean DNA counts for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola but there is no correlation between the amount of alcohol consumption and the level of periopathogens.
risk factors, periodontal disease, alcoholism
- Anderson P, Baumberg B: Alkohol w Europie: perspektywa zdrowia publicznego. Raport dla Komisji Europejskiej – Podsumowanie. Alkohol Narkom 2006, 19, 121–137.
- Rehm J, Shield KD: Global alcohol-attributable deaths from cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury in 2010. Alcohol Res 2014, 35, 174–183.
- Rehm J, Shield KD, Gmel G, Rehm MX, Frick U: Modeling the impact of alcohol dependence on mortality burden and the effect of available treatment interventions in the European Union. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2013, 23, 89–97.
- Yost S, Duran-Pinedo AE, Teles R, Krishnan K, Frias-Lopez J: Functional signatures of oral dysbiosis during periodontitis progression revealed by microbial metatranscriptome analysis. Genome Med 2015, 7, 1–19.
- Mineoka T, Awano S, Rikimaru T, Kurata H, Yoshida A, Ansai T: Site-specific development of periodontal disease is associated with increased levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque. J Periodontol 2008, 79, 670–676.
- Wara-Aswapati N, Pitiphat W, Chanchaimongkon L, Taweechaisupapong S, Boch JA, Ishikawa I: Red bacterial complex is associated with the severity of chronic periodontitis in a Thai population. Oral Dis 2009, 15, 354–359.
- Suzuki N, Yoneda M, Hirofuji T: Mixed red-complex bacterial infection in periodontitis. Int J Dent 2013, 2013, 1–6.
- Schmidt J, Jentsch H, Stingu CS, Sack U: General immune status and oral microbiology in patients with different forms of periodontitis and healthy control subjects. PLoS One 2014, 9, 10, e109187.
- Crews FT, Bechara R, Brown LA, Guidot DM, Mandrekar P, Oak S, Qin L, Szabo G, Wheeler M, Zou J: Cytokines and alcohol. Alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006, 30, 720–730.
- Molina PE, Happel KI, Zhang P, Kolls JK, Nelson S: Focus on: Alcohol and the immune system. Alcohol Res Health 2010, 33, 97–108.
- Park JB, Han K, Park YG, Ko Y: Association between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease: The 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Periodontol 2014, 85, 1521–1528.
- Hach M, Holm-Pedersen P, Adegboye A, Avlund K: The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes. Int J Dent Hyg 2015, 12, 1–7.
- Saito D, Coutinho LL, Borges Saito CP, Tsai SM, Höfling JF, Gonçalves RB: Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in primary endodontic infections. J Endod 2009, 35, 1518–1524.
- Braga RR, Carvalho MA, Bruña-Romero O, Teixeira RE, Costa JE, Mendes EN: Quantification of five putative periodontal pathogens in female patients with and without chronic periodontitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Anaerobe 2010, 16, 3, 234–239.
- Hornecker E, Muuss T, Ehrenreich H, Mausberg RF: A pilot study on the oral conditions of severely alcohol addicted persons. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003, 15, 51–59.
- Amaral CdaS, Luiz RR, Leão AT: The relationship between alcohol dependence and periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2008, 79, 993–998.
- Pitiphat W, Merchant AT, Rimm EB, Joshipura KJ: Alcohol consumption increases periodontitis risk. J Dent Res 2003, 82, 509–513.
- Tezal M, Grossi SG, Ho AW, Genco RJ: The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2001, 72, 183–189.
- Araujo MW, Dermen K, Connors G, Ciancio S: Oral and dental health among inpatients in treatment for alcohol use disorders: a pilot study. J Int Acad Periodontol 2004, 6, 125–130.
- Khocht A, Schleifer S, Janal MN, Keller S: Dental care and oral disease in alcohol-dependent persons. J Subst Abuse Treat 2009, 37, 214–218.
- Tezal M, Grossi SG, Ho AW, Genco RJ: Alcohol consumption and periodontal disease. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survery. J Clin Periodontol 2004, 31, 484–488.
- Amaral CdaS, Vettore MV, Leão A: The relationship of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption with periodontitis: a systematic review. J Dent 2009, 37, 643–651.
- Shimazaki Y, Saito T, Kiyohara Y, Kato I, Kubo M, Iida M, Yamashita Y: Relationship between drinking and periodontitis: The Hisayama Study. J Periodontol 2005, 76, 1534–1541.
- Barbadoro P, Lucrezi D, Prospero E, Annino I: Improvement of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about oral health in a population of alcohol addicted persons. Alcohol Alcohol 2008, 43, 3, 347–350.
- Silva N, Abusleme L, Bravo D, Dutzan N, Garcia-Sesnich J, Vernal R, Hernández M, Gamonal J: Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases. J Appl Oral Sci 2015, 23, 329–355.
- Byrne SJ, Dashper SG, Darby IB, Adams GG, Hoffmann B, Reynolds EC: Progression of chronic periodontitis can be predicted by the levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in subgingival plaque. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2009, 24, 469–477.
- Da Silva-Boghossian CM, do Souto RM, Luiz RR, Colombo AP: Association of red complex, A. actinomycetemcomitans and non-oral bacteria with periodontal diseases. Arch Oral Biol 2011, 56, 899–906.
- Amaral Cda S, da Silva-Boghossian CM, Leão AT, Colombo AP: Evaluation of the subgingival microbiota of alcoholic and non-alcoholic individuals. J Dent 2011, 39, 11, 729–738.
- Lages EJ, Costa FO, Cortelli SC, Cortelli JR, Cota LO, Cyrino RM, Lages EM, Nobre-Franco GC, Brito JA, Gomez RS: Alcohol consumption and periodontitis: Quantification of periodontal pathogens and cytokines. J Periodontol 2015, 11, 1–14.
- Lages EJP, Costa FO, Lages EM, Cota LO, Cortelli SC, Nobre-Franco GC, Cyrino RM, Cortelli JR: Risk variables in the association between frequency of alcohol consumption and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2012, 39, 115–122.