Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
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ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2019, vol. 28, nr 6, June, p. 737–746

doi: 10.17219/acem/95039

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Expression profile of Galp, alarin and their receptors in rat adrenal gland

Marianna Tyczewska1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Paulina Milecka2,B,C,F, Marta Szyszka1,B,C,F, Piotr Celichowski1,B,C,F, Karol Jopek1,B,C,F, Hanna Komarowska3,B,C,F, Ludwik Kazimierz Malendowicz1,E,F, Marcin Ruciński1,A,F

1 Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland

2 Central Laboratory of Microbiology, H. Swiecicki Clinical Hospital at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland

3 Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland


Background. Galanin-like peptide (Galp) and alarin (Ala) are 2 new members of the galanin peptide family. Galanin (Gal), the “parental” peptide of the entire family, is known to regulate numerous physiological processes, including energy and osmotic homeostasis, reproduction, food intake, and secretion of adrenocortical hormones. Galp and Ala are known to regulate food intake. In the rat, Galp mRNA has been found in the brain, exclusively in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence, which are involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Alarin-like immunoreactivity is present in the locus coeruleus (LC) and the ARC of rats and mice.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of Ala, Galp and their receptors in the organs of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis of the rat.
Material and Methods. The expression of the examined genes was measured in different models of adrenal growth of the rat in vivo (postnatal ontogenesis, compensatory adrenal growth, adrenocortical regeneration, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration). The expression was evaluated using the Affymetrix® microarray system or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).
Results. The expression of Ala gene was observed in each organ of the HPA axis (the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal gland). The elevated level of expression of this gene was observed in the pituitary of 2-day rats, while very low levels of Ala mRNA were observed in the adrenals. Galp mRNA expression was observed only in the hypothalamus and the hypophysis during postnatal ontogenesis. The expression of Gal receptors was demonstrated in the hypothalamus, the hypophysis and the adrenal gland. In different compartments of the adrenal glands of adult, intact male and female rats, the expression of Ala, Galp and galanin receptor 1 (Galr1) genes was negligible, but the expression of galanin receptor 2 (Galr2), galanin receptor 3 (Galr3) and neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Ntrk2) genes was noticeable.
Conclusion. The examined genes showed different expression levels within the studied HPA axis; some of them were neither expressed in the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, nor in the adrenal gland.

Key words

galanin-like peptide, alarin, adrenal gland

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