Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2019, vol. 28, nr 12, December, p. 1717–1722
Publication type: review article
Matrix metalloproteinase-3 in brain physiology and neurodegeneration
1 Department of Molecular Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Wrocław, Poland
2 Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Biophysics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Structural and functional synapse reorganization is one of the key issues of learning and memory mechanisms. Specific proteases, called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), play a pivotal role during learning-related modification of neural circuits. Different types of MMPs modify the extracellular perisynaptic environment, leading to the plastic changes in the synapses. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the role played by matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in various processes occurring in the mammalian brain, both in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss a crucial function of MMP-3 in synaptic plasticity, learning, neuronal development, as well as in neuroregeneration. We discuss the involvement of MMP-3 in synaptic long-term potentiation, which is likely to have a profound impact on experience-dependent learning. On the other hand, we also provide examples of deleterious actions of uncontrolled MMP-3 activity on the central nervous system (CNS) and its contribution to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (AD and PD). Since the molecular mechanisms controlled by MMP-3 have a profound and diverse impact on physiological and pathological brain functioning, their deep understanding may be crucial for the development of more specific methods for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.
neuroplasticity, MMP-3, neurodegenerative diseases, learning and memory, long-term potentiation
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