Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2019, vol. 28, nr 12, December, p. 1609–1614
Publication type: original article
Aged garlic extract and S-allylcysteine increase the GLUT3 and GCLC expression levels in cerebral ischemia
1 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Canada
2 Laboratory of Cerebral Vascular Pathology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, Mexico City, Mexico
3 Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico
4 Laboratory of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology, Faculty of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Chilpancingo, Mexico
5 Medical Research Unit on Human Genetics, Pediatrics Hospital, Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), Mexico City, Mexico
6 Laboratory of Molecular and Genomic Biology, Faculty of Biological Chemical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Chilpancingo, Mexico
Background. During cerebral ischemia, energy restoration through the regulation of glucose transporters and antioxidant defense mechanisms is essential to maintain cell viability. Antioxidant therapy has been considered effective to attenuate brain damage; moreover, the regulation of transcription factors that positively regulate the expression of glucose transporters is associated with this therapy. Recently, it has been reported that the use of antioxidants such as S-allylcysteine (SAC), a component of aged garlic extract (AGE), improves survival in experimental models of cerebral ischemia.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AGE and SAC on the level of mRNA expression of the main neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT3) and the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in rats with transient focal cerebral ischemia.
Material and Methods. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. The animals were sacrificed after different reperfusion times (0–48 h). Animals injected with AGE (360 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and SAC (300 mg/kg, i.p.) at the beginning of reperfusion were sacrificed after 2 h. The mRNA expression level was analyzed in the fronto-parietal cortex using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).
Results. Two major increases in GLUT3 expression at 1 h and 24 h of reperfusion were found. Both treatments increased GLUT3 and GCLC mRNA levels in control and under ischemic/reperfusion injury animals.
Conclusion. This data suggests that SAC and AGE might induce neuroprotection, while controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as indicated by the increase in GCLC expression, and regulating the energy content of the cell by increasing glucose transport mediated by GLUT3.
antioxidants, cerebral ischemia, glucose transporters
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