Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
2017, vol. 26, nr 5, August, p. 865–874
Publication type: review article
MicroRNA in cardiovascular biology and disease
1 Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Medical Biology, The Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński Institute of Cardiology, Warszawa, Poland
2 Department of Immunology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are members of a non-coding RNA family. They act as negative regulators of protein translation by affecting messenger RNA (mRNA) stability; they modulate numerous signaling pathways and cellular processes, and are involved in cell-to-cell communication. Thus, studies on miRNAs offer an opportunity to improve our understanding of complex biological mechanisms. In the cardiovascular system, miRNAs control functions of various cells, such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The pivotal role of miRNAs in the cardiovascular system provides a new perspective on the pathophysiology of disorders like myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, fibrosis, heart failure, arrhythmia, inflammation and atherosclerosis. MiRNAs are differentially expressed in diseased tissue and can be released into circulation. Manipulation of miRNA activity may influence the course of a disease. Therefore, miRNAs have become an active field of research for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. This review discusses emerging functions of miRNAs in cardiogenesis, heart regeneration and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases.
microRNA, cardiovascular disease, heart regeneration, heart development
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