Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 2.1
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.2
Scopus CiteScore – 3.4 (CiteScore Tracker 3.6)
Index Copernicus  – 161.11; MNiSW – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2016, vol. 25, nr 4, July-August, p. 733–740

doi: 10.17219/acem/61014

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer

Aleksandra I. Czerw1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Urszula Religioni1,C,D,E,F, Andrzej Deptała2,E,F

1 Department of Public Health, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland

2 Division of Cancer Prevention, Medical University of Warsaw and Department of Oncology and Hematology CSK MSW, Poland


Background. In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders.
Objectives. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues.
Material and Methods. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease.
Results. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91).
Conclusion. In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients’ approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

Key words

lung cancer, acceptance of illness, pain management

References (46)

  1. Deptała A, Frączek M: Rak płuca. Międzybłoniak opłucnej. In: Podstawy diagnostyki i terapii nowotworów. Ed. M. Frączek, Alfa-Medica Press, Bielsko-Biała 2008, 152–157.
  2. Didkowska J, Wojciechowska U, Zatoński W: Nowotwory złośliwe w Polsce w 2011 roku, Ministerstwo Zdrowia, Warszawa 2013.
  3. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M: GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11; International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon 2013.
  4. Czerw A, Religioni U, Deptała A: Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer and coping strategies in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer. DOI: 10.1007/s12282-015-0620-0.
  5. Skevington SM: A standardised scale to measure beliefs about controlling pain (BPCQ): A preliminary study. Psychol Health 1990, 4, 221–232.
  6. Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ: The use of cognitive doping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain 1983, 17, 33–44.
  7. Juczyński Z: Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia. Pracownia testów psychologicznych, Warszawa 2009, 165.
  8. Watson M, Law M, Santos M, Greer S, Baruch J, Bliss J: The Mini-MAC: further development of the mental adjustment to cancer scale. J Psych Oncol 1994, 12, 33–46.
  9. Juczyński Z: Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia. Pracownia testów psychologicznych. Warszawa 2009, 159.
  10. Czerw A, Religioni U, Deptała A, Walewska-Zielecka B: Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer and coping strategies in colorectal cancer patients, Gastroenterol Rev. DOI: 10.5114/pg.2015.52561.
  11. Religioni U, Czerw A, Deptała A: Acceptance of cancer in patients diagnosed with lung, breast, colorectal and prostate carcinoma. Iranian J Public Health 2015, 44, 1135–1142.
  12. Juczyński Z: Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego, Warszawa 2001, 167–174.
  13. Religioni U, Czerw A, Deptała A: Patient mental adjustment to selected types of cancer. Psychiatr Pol. DOI: 10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/44732.
  14. Pharo GH, Zhou L: Review Pharmacologic management of cancer pain, J Am Osteopath Assoc 2005, 105, Suppl 5, 21–28.
  15. NCCN Practice Guidelines for Cancer Pain, Benedetti C, Brock C, Cleeland: National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology (Williston Park) 2000, 14(11A): 135–150.
  16. Panchal SJ, Anghelescu DL, Benedetti C: Adult cancer pain. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (v. 2.2005) [online:], 18.10 2014.
  17. World Health Organization, Cancer pain relief – with a guide to opioid availability. 2nd ed. Geneva 1996.
  18. Noble B, Clark D, Meldrum M: The measurement of pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005 29, 14–21.
  19. Juczyński Z: Psychologiczne wyznaczniki przystosowania się do choroby nowotworowej. Psychoonkologia 1997, 1, 1–10.
  20. Wiśniewska A, Szewczyk MT, Cwajda-Białasik J: Przekonania na temat kontroli bólu u chorych z przewlekłym niedokrwieniem kończyn dolnych. Pielo Chir Angiol 2009, 3, 113–121.
  21. Misterska E, Jankowski R, Głowacki M: Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control. Med Sci Monit 2013, 19, 1211–1220.
  22. McCracken L, Eccleston Ch: A comparison of the relative of coping and acceptance-based measures in a sample of chronic pain sufferers. Eur J Pain 2006, 10, 23–29.
  23. Kazalska D: Psychologiczne uwarunkowania bólu przewlekłego. Konsekwencje nieleczonego bólu. Terapia 2006, 11, 186, 55–62.
  24. Asqari A, Nicholas M: Pain self-efficacy beliefs and pain behavior. A prospective study. Pain 2001, 94, 85–100.
  25. Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ: The use of cognitive doping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: Relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain 1983, 17, 33–44.
  26. Andruszkiewicz A, Wróbel B, Marzec A, Kocięcka A: Strategie radzenia sobie z bólem u pacjentów ze zmianami zwyrodnieniowymi stawu biodrowego. Probl Piel 2008, 16, 3, 237–240.
  27. Orzechowska A, Florkowski A, Gruszczyński W, Zboralski K, Wysokiński A, Gałecki P, Talarowska M: Status socjoekonomiczny a zachowania agresywne i style radzenia sobie ze stresem. Psychiatr Pol 2009, 43, 1, 53–63.
  28. Verra ML, Angst F, Lehmann S, Aeschlimann A: translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the German version of the coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ-D). J Pain 2006, 7, 5, 327.
  29. Marcinkowska-Bachlińska M, Małecka-Panas E: Poczucie kontroli i radzenie sobie z emocjami i dolegliwościami u chorych na chorobę refluksową. Przew Lek 2006, 9, 84–85.
  30. Juczyński Z: Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego. Warszawa 2001, 164.
  31. Janowski K, Kurpas D, Kusz J, Mroczek B, Jedynak T: Health-related behavior, profile of health locus of control and acceptance of illness in patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, 1–8.
  32. Rolka H, Krajewska-Kułak E, Kułak W: Akceptacja choroby i strategie radzenia sobie z bólem jako istotne komponenty oceny jakości życia zależnej od stanu zdrowia u chorych z migreną. Doniesienie wstępne. Probl Piel 2009, 17, 178–183.
  33. Basinska MB, Andruszkiewicz A: Health locus of control in patients with Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto disease and their acceptance of ilness. Int J Endocrinol Metab 2012, 10, 537–542.
  34. Felton BJ, Revenson TA: Coping with chronic illness: A study of illness controllability and the influence of coping strategies on psychological adjustment. J Consult Clin Psychol 1984, 52, 343–353.
  35. Vandervoort D, Luis P, Hamilton S: Some correlates of health locus of control among multicultural individuals. Currt Psychol 1997, 16, 167–178.
  36. Stuifbergen AK, Seraphine A, Roberts G: An explanatory model of health promotion and quality of life in chronic disabling conditions. Nurs Res 2000, 49, 122–129.
  37. Martin LG: Adjusting to type 2 diabetes: The impact of illness cognitions on self management behavior and biological outcomes. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2012, 72, 5594.
  38. Morris T, Pettingale KW, Haybittle JL: Psychological response to cancer diagnosis and disease outcome in patient with breast cancer and lymphoma. Psycho-Oncology 1992, 1, 105–114.
  39. Bussel V, Naus M: A longitudinal investigation of coping and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors. J Psychosoc Oncol 2010, 28, 61–78.
  40. Michałowska-Wieczorek I: Rola wsparcia w zmaganiu się z chorobą nowotworową. Psychoonkologia 2006, 10, 51–56.
  41. Malicka I, Szczepańska-Gieracha J, Jankowska E, Woźniewski M, Rymaszewska J: Aktywność fizyczna, satysfakcja z życia oraz przystosowanie psychiczne do choroby nowotworowej u kobiet po leczeniu raka piersi. Współ Onkol 2011, 15, 180–185.
  42. Lueboonthavatchai P: Prevalence and psychosocial factors of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2007, 90, 2164–2174.
  43. Pinto B, Trunzo J, Reiss P, Shiu SY: Exercise participation after diagnosis of breast cancer: Trends and effects on mood and quality of life. Psychooncology 2002, 11, 389–400.
  44. Van Laarhoven HW, Schilderman J, Bleijenberg G: Coping, quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients in a curative and palliative, end-of-life care setting. Cancer Nurs 2011, 34, 302–314.
  45. Johansson E, Steineck G, Holmberg L: Long-term quality-of-life outcomes after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2011, 12, 891–899.
  46. Thome B, Hallberg IR: Quality of life in older people with cancer – a gender perspective. Eur J Cancer Care 2004, 13, 454–463.