Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
JCR Impact Factor (IF) – 1.736
5-Year Impact Factor – 2.135
Index Copernicus  – 168.52
MEiN – 70 pts

ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
Periodicity – monthly

Download original text (EN)

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2015, vol. 24, nr 3, May-June, p. 447–451

doi: 10.17219/acem/29223

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

An Assay of Selected Serum Amino Acids in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Petra Drábková1,C,D, Jana Šanderová1,B,C, Jakub Kovařík2,B, Roman KanĎár1,A,D,E,F

1 Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Diagnostics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Regional Hospital Pardubice, Czech Republic

Abstract

Background. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. In case of insulin resistance, which is typical for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), proteolysis is increased and protein synthesis is decreased; therefore, we can observe changes in the levels of amino acids in diabetics vs. non-diabetics.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to find differences in the levels of selected amino acids between patients with diabetes (type 2) and a control group.
Material and Methods. Amino acids were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde in the presence of potassium cyanide to form fluorescent 1-cyanobenz(f)isoindole product. Amino acids derivatives were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The serum levels of glucose were determined using an automatic biochemistry analyzer, glycated hemoglobin HbA1c was measured by cation exchange chromatography.
Results. A total of 19 serum amino acids in T2DM patients and non-diabetics were measured. There were 9 amino acids, which were significantly different in these groups (p < 0.05). Significantly decreased levels of arginine, asparagine, glycine, serine, threonine and significantly increased levels of alanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine in diabetics were found.
Conclusion. Significant difference in metabolism of amino acids between diabetics and non-diabetics were observed. The altered levels of amino acids in diabetic patients could be a suitable predictor of diabetes.

Key words

insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, amino acids.

References (16)

  1. World Health Organization. Diabetes: Fact Sheet N°312, reviewed October 2013.
  2. Marchetti P, Bugliani M, Boggi U, Masini M, Marselli L: The pancreatic β cells in human type 2 diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol 2012, 771, 288–309.
  3. Zhang X, Wang Y, Hao F, Zhou X, Han X, Tang H, Ji L: Human serum metabonomic analysis reveals progression axes for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance statuses. J Proteome Res 2009, 8, 5188–5195.
  4. World Health Organization. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: report of a WHO/IDF consultation. 2006.
  5. de Montigny P, Stobaugh JF, Givens RS, Carlson RG, Srinivasachar K, Sternson LA, Higuchi T: Naphtalene2,3-dicarboxaldehyde/cyanide ion: a rationally designed fluorogenic reagent for primary amines. Anal Chem 1987, 59, 1096–1101.
  6. Manica DP, Lapos JA, Jones AD, Ewing AG: Analysis of the stability of amino acids derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 2003, 322, 68–78.
  7. Newgard CB, An J, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ, Stevens RD, Lien LF, Haqq AM, Shah SH, Arlotto M, Slentz CA, Rochon J, Gallup D, Ilkayeva O, Wenner BR, Yancy WS, Eisenson H, Musante G, Surwit RS, Millington DS, Butler MD, Svetkey LP: A branched-chain amino acid-related metabolic signature that differentiates obese and lean human and contributes to insulin resistance. Cell Metab 2009, 9, 311–326.
  8. Wang TJ, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Cheng S, Rhee EP, McCabe E, Lewis GD, Fox CS, Jacques PF, Fernandez C, O’Donnel CJ, Carr SA, Mootha VK, Florez JC, Souza A, Melander O, Clish CB, Gerszten RE: Metabolite profiles and the risk of developing diabetes. Nat Med 2011, 17, 448–453.
  9. Carl GF, Hoffman WH, Blankenship PR, Litaker MS, Hoffman MG, Mabe PA: Diabetic ketoacidosis depletes plasma tryptophan. Endocr Res 2002, 28, 91–102.
  10. Davalli AM, Perego C, Folli FB: The potential role of glutamate in the current diabetes epidemic. Acta Diabetol 2012, 49, 167–183.
  11. Faerch K, Vaag A, Holst JJ, Hansen T, Jorgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K: Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study. Diabetes Care 2009, 32, 439–444.
  12. Tabak AG, Jokela M, Akbaraly TN, Brunner EJ, Kivimaki M, Witte DR: Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the Whitehall study. Lancet 2009, 373, 2215–2221.
  13. Wang-Sattler R, Yu Z, Herder C, Messias AC, Floegel A, He Y, Heim K, Campillos M, Holzapfel C, Thorand B, Grallert H, Xu T, Bader E, Huth C, Mittelstrass K, Döring A, Meisinger C, Gieger C, Prehn C, Roemisch-Margl W, Carstensen M, Xie L, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Xing G, Ceglarek U, Thiery J, Giani G, Lickert H, Lin X, Li Y, Boeing H, Joost HG, de Angelis MH, Rathmann W, Suhre K, Prokisch H, Peters A, Meitinger T, Roden M, Wichmann HE, Pischon T, Adamski J, Illig T: Novel biomarkers for pre-diabetes i
  14. Fiehn O, Garvey WT, Newman JW, Lok KH, Hoppel CL, Adams SH: Plasma metabolomic profiles reflective of glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic obese African-American women. PLoS ONE 2010, 5, 1–10.
  15. la Marca G, Malvagia S, Toni S, Piccini B, Di Ciommo V, Bottazzo GF: Children who developed type 1 diabetes early in life show low levels of carnitine and amino acids at birth: does this finding shed light on the etiopathogenesis of the disease? Nutr Diabetes 2013, 3, 1–8.
  16. Lanza IR, Shang S, Ward LE, Karakelides H, Raftery D, Nair KS: Quantitative metabolomics by 1H-NMR and LC-MS/MS confirms altered metabolic pathways in diabetes. PLoS ONE 2010, 5, 1–10.