Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Title abbreviation: Adv Clin Exp Med
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ISSN 1899–5276 (print)
ISSN 2451-2680 (online)
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Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine

2009, vol. 18, nr 5, September-October, p. 415–424

Publication type: editorial article

Language: English

Epidemiology of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Epidemiologia zespołów mielodysplastycznych

Krzysztof Mądry1,, Jadwiga Dwilewicz−Trojaczek1,, Wiesław W. Jędrzejczak1,

1 Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland


The pathobiology, diagnosis, and novel therapeutic approaches of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have attracted increasing interest during the last decade. The crude annual incidence of MDS is 3.2–12.4/100,000. An incidence of 24.5/100,000 was estimated among those older than 70 years. At that age, MDS is probably the most frequent hematological malignant disease. In contrast to earlier expectations, there was no increase in MDS incidence in 1991–2001. The main reason for the rise in incidence in previous years was the increasing frequency of bone marrow examinations in elderly patients. There are some epidemiological and clinical differences between Asian and Western myelodysplastic syndrome cases. Cigarette smoking, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and exposure to benzene, solvents, and other toxic factors have been linked with increased risk of MDS. Familial MDS is scarce. Large multi−institutional studies are necessary to assess the incidence and risk factors for MDS.


W ostatnich latach zwiększa się zainteresowanie patogenezą, rozpoznaniem oraz nowymi możliwościami terapeutycznymi zespołów mielodysplastycznych (m.d.s.). Zapadalność na zespoły mielodysplastyczne wynosi 3,2–12,4/ /100 000/rok. Po 70 r. ż. zapadalność wynosi 24,5/100 000/rok. W tej grupie wiekowej m.d.s. są jedną z najczęstszych, o ile nie najczęstszą chorobą rozrostową układu krwiotwórczego. W latach 1991–2001 nie obserwowano zwiększenia zapadalności na m.d.s., wcześniejszy wzrost zapadalności należy wiązać z częstszymi badaniami szpiku wykonywanymi u pacjentów w wieku podeszłym. Istnieją różnice epidemiologiczne i kliniczne między chorymi na m.d.s. mieszkańcami Azji a mieszkańcami Europy i Ameryki Północnej. Wykazano związek między paleniem papierosów, chemioterapią, radioterapią, narażeniem na benzen, rozpuszczalniki i inne czynniki toksyczne a zwiększonym ryzykiem m.d.s. Rodzinne występowanie m.d.s. należy do rzadkości. Potrzebne są zakrojone na szeroką skalę badania na temat występowania i czynników etiologicznych m.d.s..

Key words

myelodysplastic syndromes, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors

Słowa kluczowe

zespół mielodysplastyczny, epidemiologia, zapadalność, czynniki ryzyka

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